Un accusé de génocide a-t-il droit à une défense ? Pour François Roux, qui fut l'avocat de Douch, le tortionnaire khmer rouge, la réponse est « oui ». Dans ce récit humble et passionné, il raconte le combat d'une vie pour rendre sa pleine fonction à une justice issue du tribunal de Nuremberg de 1945 et conçue, d'abord, pour combattre l'impunité des criminels nazis. Tout accusé, même d'un crime contre l'humanité, doit avoir droit à une vraie défense et à un procès équitable, ce qui inclut tout autant le droit à la présomption d'innocence que celui de plaider coupable. C'est la condition, à ses yeux, pour construire sur des principes intangibles une véritable justice pénale internationale, enrichie de la diversité culturelle dont sont porteurs tous ses acteurs, quelle que soit la région du monde dont ils proviennent.François Roux a exercé pendant trente-huit ans la profession d'avocat. Longtemps engagé aux côtés des désobéissants civils non-violents dans les pas de Gandhi, il s'implique ensuite dans la justice pénale internationale et dirige aujourd'hui le bureau de la défense, au sein du Tribunal spécial pour le Liban, à La Haye, aux Pays-Bas. Il est l'auteur, chez Indigène, du livre En état de légitime révolte.
Le droit de la famille, dans sa dimension civiliste, fortement ancré dans les cultures nationales des États membres, est une matière qui ne relève pas, en principe, du droit de l'Union européenne. Pourtant, il n'est plus possible d'affirmer que la matière échappe dans son entier au droit de l'Union. De nombreux aspects de la famille sont sous influence européenne, au point que l'on voit se dessiner les contours d'une « famille européenne ». L'ouvrage propose de mettre en lumière l'acquis européen en matière de droit de la famille, au prisme du droit matériel (citoyenneté européenne, politique sociale de l'Union, fonction publique européenne...), comme du droit international privé. Le droit de la famille de l'Union s'identifie alors comme un «droit spécial» complétant la diversité des droits nationaux de la famille. Sa signification théorique et politique dans l'Union est débattue par les auteurs, autant que son devenir. Loin de demeurer fragmentaire à côté des droits nationaux des États membres, il a probablement vocation à se densifier pour offrir aux citoyens et résidents européens un droit commun de la famille au sein de l'Union.
Family law, with its civil law tradition, and strong roots in the national cultures of the Member States, does not normally fall within the scope of European law. However, it is no longer possible to argue that family law is outside European law entirely. There are many aspects of the family which are subject to European influence, to the point that the outlines of a «European family» are starting to emerge. This book is intended to highlight the European experience of family law and its substantive (i.e. European citizenship, EU social policy, EU civil service...) and private international law aspects. Union law therefore contains a form of «special» family law which is shared between the Member States and supplements their national family laws. Its theoretical and political importance in the Union, as well as its future, are discussed by the authors. Far from remaining fragmented alongside the national laws of Member States, it will likely develop to offer European citizens and residents a common family law within the EU.
Studies of the overall impact of robotics on the economy have shown that investments in its various sectors – industrial, professional and service robotics – are increasing globally and the markets associated with them are valued in billions. Robotization improves the competitiveness of enterprises, while collaborative robotics reinvents methods of production.
Beyond the economic outlook, service robotics, backed by the development of artificial intelligence, raises challenging ethical and social issues.
The legal analysis of robotics is no mean feat because it covers a very diverse technical reality. Companies whose businesses are focused on robotic technologies and applications can be confronted with a complex legal situation resulting from the plurality of the applicable rules which have not necessarily been conceived or adopted bearing in mind their specific constraints.
This situation should not hamper their development. It only implies taking cues from the economic legal norms which promote such developments and conducting an analysis of the legal risks which they face, given the applicable rules of liability.
This comparative study – carried out by members of the Lexing® Network – proposes an overview, having regard to the legislation of 17 different countries, of the legal issues raised by robotics and the way the law in force responds, in a more or less satisfactory manner. Discover the authors & contributors in details under the tab 'Extraits'.
L'Institut Européen de l'Expertise et de l'Expert poursuit, parmi ses objectifs, l'identification des convergences possibles des systèmes d'expertise judiciaire nationaux et l'élaboration de propositions pour améliorer la qualité des expertises judiciaires conduites dans l'espace européen.
Cofinancé par la Commission européenne, le projet EGLE (European Guide for Legal Expertise) a permis l'élaboration d'un Guide des bonnes pratiques de l'expertise judiciaire civile dans l'Union européenne.
Préfacée par Giorgio Santacroce, Premier président honoraire de la Cour de cassation italienne et conclue par François Paychère, Président du GT-QUAL (Conseil de l'Europe), le présent ouvrage enrichit et complète le Guide d'une série d'analyses et de réflexions sur leur mise en oeuvre.
Professeur, chercheur, directeur de centre, doyen et recteur, Yves Poullet s'est illustré dans toutes les étapes et fonctions d'une carrière universitaire bien remplie, marquant des générations d'étudiants, de chercheurs, de collègues et de pairs. Spécialiste éminent et incontournable du droit de l'internet et des technologies de l'information et de la communication, il en est aussi l'un des précurseurs en fondant dès 1979 un des premiers centres de recherche européens en la matière.
Par cet ouvrage, collègues, amis, anciens doctorants rendent hommage à l'une des plus belles plumes de la discipline, en lui offrant leurs réflexions sur l'influence réciproque du droit et de la technologie. Leurs contributions démontrent l'étendue de l'expertise et des réseaux européens et internationaux d'Yves Poullet. Elles s'articulent autour de trois axes qui furent autant de perspectives dans lesquelles il a inscrit sa recherche : le droit, les normes et les libertés.
La richesse de ce volume témoigne de son attention à l'humain, des amitiés qu'il a nouées, mais aussi des sillons qu'il a tracés en droit des technologies de l'information et de la communication, sillons dans lesquels a poussé une forêt luxuriante, toujours fertile. C'est l'héritage d'un grand penseur, d'un véritable universitaire. =========== Yves Poullet has not merely served but excelled in all functions of the University world. Whether as professor, researcher, director of a research centre or as dean and rector, he has left a lasting impression in the minds of generations of students, researchers, colleagues and peers. He is a preeminent expert on the law of Internet and Information and Communications Technologies who, already in 1979, pioneered one of the first European research centres in the field.
This volume is a tribute to Yves Poullet from colleagues, friends, former PhD researchers, offering their reflections on the reciprocal influence of law and technology. These contributions highlight both the range of expertise and the extent of the European and international networks he has nourished. They address the three main research axes Yves Poullet has developed through the years: law, norms and freedoms.
The authors of this volume pay homage to a mentor, a friend, but above all to an exceptional researcher who has sown countless seeds in the field, enabling a luxurious landscape to grow and become a source of inspiration for many scholars. This is the heritage of a genuine thinker, a real academic.
Situé au confluent de plusieurs logiques d’intégration, le droit privé européen déplace les frontières juridiques, que ces frontières soient spatiales ou matérielles. Son développement s’accompagne en outre d’une évolution des méthodes appliquées au droit. Le présent ouvrage analyse ces transformations. Le degré d’européanisation du droit privé est variable selon le secteur envisagé. Discuter des frontières du droit privé européen conduit dès lors à discuter des objectifs, des obstacles et des limites de cette européanisation, tout en soulignant la relativité même de la frontière entre droit public et droit privé. ---- European private law results from the continuous interaction between different integration processes. Its expanding scope redraws the shape of many legal boundaries, be they substantive or territorial, and along with these evolutions come mutations in legal regulation. This book considers these phenomena by successively adopting a general/methodological and a specific/disciplinary approach. The degree of Europeanisation varies depending on the legal field involved. To discuss the boundaries of European Private Law leads therefore to discuss the objectives, obstacles and limits to Europeanisation. It also underscores the relativity of the (continental) boundary between public and private law.
In twenty years, the globalization of trade has led to a change in scale that has upset the balance of power between the players in online containerized maritime transport and the logistics chain passing through European seaports. Three global shipping alliances dominate 90% of online containerized maritime transport, while further integrating port activities.
Twelve Asian ports, eight of which are Chinese, are now among the top fifteen in the world. At the same time, Chinese interests, supported by public authorities and resources, are taking control of terminals and port companies in Europe, as part of the geopolitical project of the New Silk Roads. This economic and industrial context is emblematic of the challenges facing European competition law, which has so far accompanied rather than controlled these transformations. European competition rules will have to be mobilized in a global context, alongside the new rules on the control of foreign direct investment. This study takes stock of the new regulatory challenges in this sector of prime importance for the Union.
This Handbook of European Environment and Climate Law is the 2nd edition of the work previously titled Handbook of European Environment Law.
It is associated with the Traité de droit européen de l'environnement et du climat and the Manuel de droit européen de l'environnement et du climat, both in the French language and published in the same collection, and with which it shares a same structure. The Traité provides a more in-depth approach, with further historic, policy and caselaw considerations, and more complete references.
The introduction in the book's title of the climate dimension, while it was already quite present in the previous edition, is testimony to its growing importance absent a dedicated EU policy and corresponding legislative basis.
Climate law is covered in its many occurrences along the work, its specificities noted, and their consequences recognized, especially with respect to the international background which brings about novel legal interventions, an upheaval of classical approaches, through the creation of a new governance for the implementation of the Paris Agreement and of the resulting EU legislation.
The recurring changes in the many and diverse environmental legislations are also of course presented in context, including in light of the growing importance of circular economy and the proposal of a European Green Deal.
The growing interference of fundamental rights is henceforth considered: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the Union, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, etc. More broadly, the development of environmental and climate disputes settlement is accounted for beyond the traditional recourse to the EU judges, in the national courts including through transnational private litigation, and in international arbitration.
The potency of the law in fostering the process of gradual European integration is easily discernable and widely acknowledged. It is largely and conspicuously revealed by the litigation before the courts of, both, the European Union and its Member States.
The concern faithfully to give the European treaty the authentic meaning and scope as intended by its authors permeates the European courts' judgments, and the constant theme of the entitlement of those vested with rights conferred by the law of the European Union to effective judicial protection is omnipresent in their decisions.
The law of European integration has been uncharted territory. The novelty of various issues which have arisen and on which the courts have had to pronounce springs from the originality of the integration venture and is commensurate with its uniqueness, distinctive nature and specific exigencies.
The writings here assembled allow to trace the starting point since the inceptive formative years of the growth of a legal doctrine and an evolving jurisprudential edifice in several areas, to appraise their direction and constancy and to assay adjustments and adaptations.
En octobre 2016, le Conseil des barreaux européens (CCBE) a organisé un colloque sur « L'innovation et l'avenir de la profession d'avocat ». Le colloque a abordé des questions telles que : comment la profession d'avocat évolue-t-elle ou se réinvente-t-elle pour occuper une place essentielle dans son avenir ? Est-il possible de respecter les valeurs fondamentales de la profession tout en relevant ces défis ? Quels sont les acteurs clés de l'innovation et du positionnement de la profession d'avocat dans un environnement en constante évolution ? Comment les avocats européens répondent-ils à ces questions ?
Le livre du CCBE est le fruit de la rencontre d'experts exposant leurs idées et leurs réflexions sur leur sujet respectif dans des articles constructifs. ****************** In October 2016, the Council of Bars and Law Societies of Europe (CCBE) organised a conference on "Innovation and the Future of the Legal Profession". The conference addressed such questions as: how will the legal profession evolve or reinvent itself to be an essential part of its future? Can the profession's core values be upheld whilst adapting to these challenges? Who are the key players innovating and positioning the legal profession in an ever-changing environment? How are European lawyers responding to these questions?
This CCBE book is the resulting collection of essays by the expert speakers, elaborating their ideas and thoughts on their respective topics into compelling articles.
During the 2000s, the European Union has witnessed a significant change in terms of integration policies for immigrants.
This book intends to address the relationship between, on the one hand, cultural diversity resulting from migration, and, on the other hand, social cohesion and social justice within Western societies. In order to do this, the authors examine what can be described as two contradictory trends in recent public policies towards foreign people or people with a foreign origin.
A book that aims to provide a trans-disciplinary analysis of the construction of "otherness" in North America and Europe.
In October 2010, in a very polemic context on immigration and immigrant integration, the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, announced that Germany was to be considered a multicultural failure, words that were soon echoed by the Belgian Prime Minister Yves Leterme. A few months later, the British Prime Minister David Cameron and the French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced the failure of multiculturalism in almost identical terms. These sensational statements, which by and large avoid defining the concept of multiculturalism, are based on a reaffirmation of "Western values" and strengthening of national identity. These statements express the need to review the policies on integration of immigrants, in the sense that they should be more active and voluntarist, more organized by the state and more supported by the EU. In the background, one can see fear for Islamic extremism, but also the idea that the nation states can put some obligations on immigrants, and that for a too long time we have been focusing on "those who arrive", rather than on "the society that welcomes them". These speeches are situated in a politico-legal context that in recent years was characterized by an ambivalent attitude towards diversity in Europe. On the one hand, we have seen accusations of racial, ethnic and religious discrimination, based on antidiscrimination legislation boosted by a strong European equality legal framework. On the other hand, we have seen denouncements of the perceived risk posed by Islam in Europe. These policy statements are also a result of numerous publications, often widely discussed in the media that outline the dangers of Islam in Europe (especially in the Netherlands). These political positions have also led to political decisions demonstrating the lack of legitimacy of Islam in Europe, such as the ban on building minarets in Switzerland or the Burqa bans adopted in the name of protecting national values and the "living together", notably in France and Belgium (2011).
Every company creates intellectual property but without always realising it. In today's knowledge-based economy, intellectual property is a strategic and essential asset that ensures the development and durability of a company. It is important to protect this asset by creating registered intellectual property rights.
Intellectual Property in Luxembourg sets out the legal aspects and tax advantages, together with practical action points on how to implement an intellectual property strategy within a company. The book explains the tax and other advantages of Luxembourg, a place where innovation and entrepreneurship are valued and encouraged.
Readers can use this as a practical guide to fully optimise the management of their IP rights.
Innovation in public procurement is essential for sustainable and inclusive growth in an increasingly globalized economy. To achieve that potential, both the promises and the perils of innovation must be investigated, including the risks and opportunities of joint procurement across borders in the European Union and the United States.
This in-depth research investigates innovation in public procurement from three different perspectives. First, leading academics and practitioners assess the purchase of innovation, with a particular focus on urban public contracting in smart cities involving meta-infrastructures, public-private partnership arrangements and smart contracts. A second line of inquiry looks for ways to encourage innovative suppliers. Here, the collected authors draw on emerging lessons from the US and Europe, to explore both the costs and the benefits of spurring innovation through procurement.
A third perspective looks to various innovations in the procurement process itself, with a focus on the effects of joint and cross-border procurement in the EU and US landscapes. The chapters review new technologies and platforms, the increasingly automated means of selecting suppliers, and the related efficiencies that "big data" can bring to public procurement.
Expanding on research in the editors' prior volume, Integrity and Efficiency in Sustainable Public Contracts: Balancing Corruption Concerns in Public Procurement Internationally (Bruylant 2014), this volume builds on a series of academic conferences and exchanges to address these issues from sophisticated academic, institutional and practical perspectives, and to point the way to future research on the contractual models that are emerging from new procurement technologies.
On 17 December 2009, the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice of the Council of Europe adopted the Guidelines for a better implementation of the existing recommendation of the Council of Europe on enforcement. These principles aim to guarantee to all the access to an enforcement agent and a quality enforcement in the respect of the fundamental rights of the litigants.
In the first part of the book, reference is made to the genesis of the CEPEJ Guidelines on Enforcement as well as to its state of application in the various Council of Europe Member States.
The second part of the book deals with the problem of the evolution of technologies and aims to question how artificial intelligence can be put at the service of enforcement. In this respect, the analysis focuses on the importance of both electronic access to information and access to dematerialised information, to highlight the imperative need for a procedure for seizure of dematerialised assets and to consider drafting the a crypto-currency attachment procedure.
Le 17 décembre 2009, la Commission européenne pour l'efficacité de la justice du Conseil de l'Europe a adopté des Lignes directrices pour une meilleure mise en oeuvre de la recommandation existante du Conseil de l'Europe sur l'exécution. Ces principes visent à garantir à tous l'accès à un agent d'exécution et à une exécution de qualité dans le respect des droits fondamentaux des justiciables.
Dans la première partie de l'ouvrage il est fait état de la genèse des Lignes directrices de la CEPEJ sur l'exécution ainsi que de son état d'application au sein des différents États membres du Conseil de l'Europe.
La seconde partie de l'ouvrage aborde la problématique de l'évolution des technologies et vise à s'interroger sur la façon dont l'intelligence artificielle peut être mise au service de l'exécution. À cet égard, l'analyse porte sur l'importance tant d'un accès dématérialisé aux informations que d'un accès aux informations dématérialisées, pour relever l'impérieuse nécessité d'une procédure de saisie des avoirs dématérialisés et envisager l'ébauche d'une procédure de saisie des crypto-monnaies.
En 2019, 40 ans après la première élection des membres du Parlement européen au suffrage universel direct en 1979, les citoyens de l'Union étaient une neuvième fois appelés aux urnes. Entre ces deux dates, le Parlement européen a profondément changé, passant d'une simple assemblée consultative au colégislateur de droit commun d'une Union européenne en proie à de nombreuses crises. Les contributions au présent ouvrage, tirées des travaux d'un colloque international qui s'est tenu à l'Université de Bordeaux les 9 et 10 mai 2019, entendent dresser le bilan, les enjeux et les perspectives, tant des élections européennes de 2019 que de la démocratie représentative européenne de façon globale.
In 2019, 40 years after the first election of members of the European Parliament by direct universal suffrage in 1979, the citizens of the Union were called to the polls for the ninth time. Between these two dates, the European Parliament changed dramatically, from a mere consultative assembly to the ordinary co-legislator of a European Union plagued by many crises. This book draws on an international conference held at the University of Bordeaux on May 9 and 10, 2019. The various contributions therein intend to take stock, examine the challenges and envisage the prospects, not only of the 2019 European elections but also of representative European democracy in general.
The idea of fairness has recently re-entered the policy discourse underpinning competition law enforcement, in the EU and beyond. Of course, the term "unfair" can be found in the EU Treaty and the avoidance of consumers' exploitation is the ultimate aim of competition principles. Still, the boundaries of fairness as a driver of competition enforcement appear unclear and, for some, dangerously flexible. At the same time, whilst the application of competition rules has over the years been focusing on restrictions to the competitive process with the effect of harming consumers, a wave of cases recently brought or decided at EU and national level appear to be inspired by wide and somewhat elusive fairness considerations, including non-discrimination, neutrality, equality of opportunities, natural justice or avoidance of abuse of law. Reference can be made to cases relating to product design, IP licensing, geo-blocking, network neutrality, privacy concerns or fiscal justice. This volume explores how fairness may guide competition enforcement, what its significance may be in explaining recent trends and actual outcomes, and what implications can be observed or expected by relying on a fairness standard in the design of substantive principles. Associating lawyers and economists, practitioners and academics, it discusses the boundaries of fairness in a world where the rationality of markets has been profoundly shaken by recent crises.
Economic globalization is transforming practically every service sector. The legal industry that has long remained insulated too has not remained untouched by the effects of globalization. The outsourcing of legal services in the past one decade has transformed the legal landscape. Legal outsourcing to India is becoming increasingly popular among U.S. and European law firms and corporations. This book broadly seeks to discuss three main topics surrounding legal process outsourcing (LPO): its emerging trends, the legal challenges it raises and the hitherto unrecognized potential it holds.
Firstly, this book clarifies concepts of LPO and its operating models practiced by U.S. and U.K. law firms and corporations. Secondly, the outsourcing of legal services creates significant challenges for ethics rules including conflict of interests, attorney-client privilege, supervision and fee sharing. Thirdly, this research explores the hidden potential of LPO to improve access to justice.
This book develops an altogether new proposal where Indian LPO professionals could help alleviate the access to justice problem among indigent and low-income populations of the United States.
Since 1999, the Asian Roundtable on Corporate Governance has brought together the most active and influential policy makers, practitioners and experts on corporate governance in the region, as well as from OECD countries and relevant international institutions. Participants exchange experiences and push forward the reform agenda on corporate governance while promoting awareness and use of the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance as well as the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. This Report supports decision-makers and practitioners in their efforts to take corporate governance to a higher level. It reflects the discussions and conclusions of various recent Roundtable. The next phase of the Roundtable will focus on how to change behaviour to achieve better outcomes.
This work contains the papers of the Tenth Conference on “Antitrust between EU Law and national law”, held in Treviso on May 17 and 18 , 2012 under the patronage of the European Lawyers Union – Union des Avocats Européens (UAE), the Associazione Italiana per la Tutela della Concorrenza - the Italian section of the Ligue Internationale du Droit de la Concurrence (LIDC)-, the Associazione Italiana Giuristi di Impresa (AIGI), the European Company Lawyers Association (ECLA), and the Associazione Antitrust Italiana (AAI). Some of the papers have been extensively reviewed and updated by the authors prior to publication.
Contributions contained in this volume are the result of an in-depth analysis and study of the most salient issues arising from the application of antitrust rules, carried out by experienced and high-ranking professionals, company lawyers, academics and EU/national institutional representatives who attended the Conference. They deal with extremely topical issues, lying at the heart of current antitrust debate. Some of the most contemporary topics include those relative to the large-scale distribution sector and the control of concentrations at both national and European level. Ample consideration is also given to salient antitrust issues encountered in undertakings’ day-to-day business life, as well as to the future of antitrust in the global economy, also in the light of the new powers recently attributed to the Italian Antitrust Authority to challenge administrative acts. This volume also includes some precious insights on the assessment and quantification of damages in antitrust infringements, from both an economic and legal perspective, as well as reflections on the role of judges in the application of antitrust law, also following the principles set forth by the European Court of Human Rights in the well-known Menarini case.
This book analyses many aspects of the present EU regulatory framework for public contracts, especially public procurement, taking the ongoing reform process into account. First, several chapters discuss the regime of the Public Sector Procurement Directive 2004/18/EC governing the procurement activities of the EU Member States, the coverage of the Directive, qualification and technical specifications, procurement procedures, and award criteria.
A specific chapter describes the EU principles applicable to contracts not covered or partially covered by the Directive, which have been the subject of relevant developments in the case law of the European Court of Justice. Another chapter covers sustainable procurement.
Second, three chapters are devoted to special procurement regimes, namely public private partnerships, defence and utilities. Third, the review and remedies regime for public procurement is covered in two chapter. Fourth, one chapters goes beyond public procurement and looks at the effect of EU law on the contract management of public contracts, after their conclusion. Fifth, three chapters go beyond the regulation of the Member States and look at the EU law regime applicable to contracts of the EU institutions. Sixth and finally, a concluding chapter provides a critique of the EU legal framework by an author from outside the EU.
Les contributions regroupées dans cet ouvrage visent à comprendre les relations et influences à travers le temps entre l’Europe et les États-Unis. S’il existe des différences importantes entre le modèle de société américain et européen, si à certains moments de notre histoire, même récente, des divergences sont apparues, il est essentiel de rappeler les multiples convergences entre ces deux continents. Le couple euro-américain n’est pas un mythe et les évolutions géopolitique et géoéconomique futures ne devraient que l’inciter à approfondir et à intensifier les relations transatlantiques. Outre l’importance de l’objet d’étude traité, cet ouvrage produit une analyse pluridisciplinaire essentielle à la compréhension du sujet et s’appuie sur des auteurs ayant un regard multiculturel.
The contributions gathered in this volume seek to understand the relations and influences across time between Europe and the United States. If there are significant differences between the model of American and European society, if at some point in our history, even recent, some divergences emerged, it is important to remember the numerous similarities between these two continents. Euro-American couple is not a myth and the future geopolitical and geo-economic developments should encourage them to deepen and strengthen transatlantic relations. Besides the importance of the treated study topic, this work supplies a multidisciplinary analysis, essential to the understanding of the subject and is based on authors having a multicultural view.
One of the key components of the modernization of competition rules has been a radical departure from the previous «form-based» enforcement to a so-called «effects-based» approach. Taking stock of ten years of experience under this new policy, the present book analyses the changes brought about, as well as the practical problems encountered in its day-to-day application, be it by competition law enforcers, judges or practitioners. This book compiles the reports prepared for the 2011 Annual Conference of the Global Competition Law Centre (“GCLC”). Each and every chapter of this volume formulates concrete proposals as to how the system can be clarified or even improved. The focus is not only on the enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 TFEU, but also in the file of merger control. Attempts are made to define more precisely the boundaries between anticompetitive object and effect, and to develop adequate safe harbours and presumptions. This book also casts a closer look at the analytical framework, possible theories of harm, evidence and defences. Overall the objective is to reconcile as best as possible law and economics, and to see how the goal to achieve the “right decision” in terms of economic outcome can be combined with the legitimate need for legal certainty.
Developing growth strategies that promote greener lifestyles requires a good understanding of what factors affect people's behaviour towards the environment. Recent OECD work based on periodic surveys of more than 10 000 households across a number of countries and areas represents a breakthrough by providing a common framework to collect unique empirical evidence for better policy design.
This publication presents responses from the most recent round of the OECD survey implemented in 2011 in 5 areas (energy, food, transport, waste and water) and 11 countries: Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Israel, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
Analysis comparing the data across countries, policy conditions and households' characteristics reveals which measures most effectively change behaviour. Each round of the survey also allows to track changes over time and to explore new emerging issues.
The new survey confirms the importance of providing the right economic incentives for influencing our decisions. The findings indicate that "soft" measures such as labelling and public information campaigns also have a significant complementary role to play. Spurring desirable behaviour change requires a mix of these instruments.
This edition completely replaces the edition that was previously posted in 2011.
The Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information, developed by the OECD with G20 countries, represents the international consensus on automatic exchange of financial account information for tax purposes, on a reciprocal basis. Over 60 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the Standard and all financial centres have been called to match those commitments, as of July 2014.
This publication is the first edition of the full version of the Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information. It contains the text of the Model Competent Authority Agreement and the Common Reporting Standard, and the Commentaries thereon, as they read on 15 July 2014. It also includes multilateral and nonreciprocal versions of the Model Competent Authority Agreement, the technical modalities and a wider approach to the Common Reporting Standard.