Un accusé de génocide a-t-il droit à une défense ? Pour François Roux, qui fut l'avocat de Douch, le tortionnaire khmer rouge, la réponse est « oui ». Dans ce récit humble et passionné, il raconte le combat d'une vie pour rendre sa pleine fonction à une justice issue du tribunal de Nuremberg de 1945 et conçue, d'abord, pour combattre l'impunité des criminels nazis. Tout accusé, même d'un crime contre l'humanité, doit avoir droit à une vraie défense et à un procès équitable, ce qui inclut tout autant le droit à la présomption d'innocence que celui de plaider coupable. C'est la condition, à ses yeux, pour construire sur des principes intangibles une véritable justice pénale internationale, enrichie de la diversité culturelle dont sont porteurs tous ses acteurs, quelle que soit la région du monde dont ils proviennent.François Roux a exercé pendant trente-huit ans la profession d'avocat. Longtemps engagé aux côtés des désobéissants civils non-violents dans les pas de Gandhi, il s'implique ensuite dans la justice pénale internationale et dirige aujourd'hui le bureau de la défense, au sein du Tribunal spécial pour le Liban, à La Haye, aux Pays-Bas. Il est l'auteur, chez Indigène, du livre En état de légitime révolte.
Le droit de la famille, dans sa dimension civiliste, fortement ancré dans les cultures nationales des États membres, est une matière qui ne relève pas, en principe, du droit de l'Union européenne. Pourtant, il n'est plus possible d'affirmer que la matière échappe dans son entier au droit de l'Union. De nombreux aspects de la famille sont sous influence européenne, au point que l'on voit se dessiner les contours d'une « famille européenne ». L'ouvrage propose de mettre en lumière l'acquis européen en matière de droit de la famille, au prisme du droit matériel (citoyenneté européenne, politique sociale de l'Union, fonction publique européenne...), comme du droit international privé. Le droit de la famille de l'Union s'identifie alors comme un «droit spécial» complétant la diversité des droits nationaux de la famille. Sa signification théorique et politique dans l'Union est débattue par les auteurs, autant que son devenir. Loin de demeurer fragmentaire à côté des droits nationaux des États membres, il a probablement vocation à se densifier pour offrir aux citoyens et résidents européens un droit commun de la famille au sein de l'Union.
Family law, with its civil law tradition, and strong roots in the national cultures of the Member States, does not normally fall within the scope of European law. However, it is no longer possible to argue that family law is outside European law entirely. There are many aspects of the family which are subject to European influence, to the point that the outlines of a «European family» are starting to emerge. This book is intended to highlight the European experience of family law and its substantive (i.e. European citizenship, EU social policy, EU civil service...) and private international law aspects. Union law therefore contains a form of «special» family law which is shared between the Member States and supplements their national family laws. Its theoretical and political importance in the Union, as well as its future, are discussed by the authors. Far from remaining fragmented alongside the national laws of Member States, it will likely develop to offer European citizens and residents a common family law within the EU.
Professeur, chercheur, directeur de centre, doyen et recteur, Yves Poullet s'est illustré dans toutes les étapes et fonctions d'une carrière universitaire bien remplie, marquant des générations d'étudiants, de chercheurs, de collègues et de pairs. Spécialiste éminent et incontournable du droit de l'internet et des technologies de l'information et de la communication, il en est aussi l'un des précurseurs en fondant dès 1979 un des premiers centres de recherche européens en la matière.
Par cet ouvrage, collègues, amis, anciens doctorants rendent hommage à l'une des plus belles plumes de la discipline, en lui offrant leurs réflexions sur l'influence réciproque du droit et de la technologie. Leurs contributions démontrent l'étendue de l'expertise et des réseaux européens et internationaux d'Yves Poullet. Elles s'articulent autour de trois axes qui furent autant de perspectives dans lesquelles il a inscrit sa recherche : le droit, les normes et les libertés.
La richesse de ce volume témoigne de son attention à l'humain, des amitiés qu'il a nouées, mais aussi des sillons qu'il a tracés en droit des technologies de l'information et de la communication, sillons dans lesquels a poussé une forêt luxuriante, toujours fertile. C'est l'héritage d'un grand penseur, d'un véritable universitaire. =========== Yves Poullet has not merely served but excelled in all functions of the University world. Whether as professor, researcher, director of a research centre or as dean and rector, he has left a lasting impression in the minds of generations of students, researchers, colleagues and peers. He is a preeminent expert on the law of Internet and Information and Communications Technologies who, already in 1979, pioneered one of the first European research centres in the field.
This volume is a tribute to Yves Poullet from colleagues, friends, former PhD researchers, offering their reflections on the reciprocal influence of law and technology. These contributions highlight both the range of expertise and the extent of the European and international networks he has nourished. They address the three main research axes Yves Poullet has developed through the years: law, norms and freedoms.
The authors of this volume pay homage to a mentor, a friend, but above all to an exceptional researcher who has sown countless seeds in the field, enabling a luxurious landscape to grow and become a source of inspiration for many scholars. This is the heritage of a genuine thinker, a real academic.
En octobre 2016, le Conseil des barreaux européens (CCBE) a organisé un colloque sur « L'innovation et l'avenir de la profession d'avocat ». Le colloque a abordé des questions telles que : comment la profession d'avocat évolue-t-elle ou se réinvente-t-elle pour occuper une place essentielle dans son avenir ? Est-il possible de respecter les valeurs fondamentales de la profession tout en relevant ces défis ? Quels sont les acteurs clés de l'innovation et du positionnement de la profession d'avocat dans un environnement en constante évolution ? Comment les avocats européens répondent-ils à ces questions ?
Le livre du CCBE est le fruit de la rencontre d'experts exposant leurs idées et leurs réflexions sur leur sujet respectif dans des articles constructifs. ****************** In October 2016, the Council of Bars and Law Societies of Europe (CCBE) organised a conference on "Innovation and the Future of the Legal Profession". The conference addressed such questions as: how will the legal profession evolve or reinvent itself to be an essential part of its future? Can the profession's core values be upheld whilst adapting to these challenges? Who are the key players innovating and positioning the legal profession in an ever-changing environment? How are European lawyers responding to these questions?
This CCBE book is the resulting collection of essays by the expert speakers, elaborating their ideas and thoughts on their respective topics into compelling articles.
Studies of the overall impact of robotics on the economy have shown that investments in its various sectors – industrial, professional and service robotics – are increasing globally and the markets associated with them are valued in billions. Robotization improves the competitiveness of enterprises, while collaborative robotics reinvents methods of production.
Beyond the economic outlook, service robotics, backed by the development of artificial intelligence, raises challenging ethical and social issues.
The legal analysis of robotics is no mean feat because it covers a very diverse technical reality. Companies whose businesses are focused on robotic technologies and applications can be confronted with a complex legal situation resulting from the plurality of the applicable rules which have not necessarily been conceived or adopted bearing in mind their specific constraints.
This situation should not hamper their development. It only implies taking cues from the economic legal norms which promote such developments and conducting an analysis of the legal risks which they face, given the applicable rules of liability.
This comparative study – carried out by members of the Lexing® Network – proposes an overview, having regard to the legislation of 17 different countries, of the legal issues raised by robotics and the way the law in force responds, in a more or less satisfactory manner. Discover the authors & contributors in details under the tab 'Extraits'.
In twenty years, the globalization of trade has led to a change in scale that has upset the balance of power between the players in online containerized maritime transport and the logistics chain passing through European seaports. Three global shipping alliances dominate 90% of online containerized maritime transport, while further integrating port activities.
Twelve Asian ports, eight of which are Chinese, are now among the top fifteen in the world. At the same time, Chinese interests, supported by public authorities and resources, are taking control of terminals and port companies in Europe, as part of the geopolitical project of the New Silk Roads. This economic and industrial context is emblematic of the challenges facing European competition law, which has so far accompanied rather than controlled these transformations. European competition rules will have to be mobilized in a global context, alongside the new rules on the control of foreign direct investment. This study takes stock of the new regulatory challenges in this sector of prime importance for the Union.
This Handbook of European Environment and Climate Law is the 2nd edition of the work previously titled Handbook of European Environment Law.
It is associated with the Traité de droit européen de l'environnement et du climat and the Manuel de droit européen de l'environnement et du climat, both in the French language and published in the same collection, and with which it shares a same structure. The Traité provides a more in-depth approach, with further historic, policy and caselaw considerations, and more complete references.
The introduction in the book's title of the climate dimension, while it was already quite present in the previous edition, is testimony to its growing importance absent a dedicated EU policy and corresponding legislative basis.
Climate law is covered in its many occurrences along the work, its specificities noted, and their consequences recognized, especially with respect to the international background which brings about novel legal interventions, an upheaval of classical approaches, through the creation of a new governance for the implementation of the Paris Agreement and of the resulting EU legislation.
The recurring changes in the many and diverse environmental legislations are also of course presented in context, including in light of the growing importance of circular economy and the proposal of a European Green Deal.
The growing interference of fundamental rights is henceforth considered: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the Union, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, etc. More broadly, the development of environmental and climate disputes settlement is accounted for beyond the traditional recourse to the EU judges, in the national courts including through transnational private litigation, and in international arbitration.
Situé au confluent de plusieurs logiques d’intégration, le droit privé européen déplace les frontières juridiques, que ces frontières soient spatiales ou matérielles. Son développement s’accompagne en outre d’une évolution des méthodes appliquées au droit. Le présent ouvrage analyse ces transformations. Le degré d’européanisation du droit privé est variable selon le secteur envisagé. Discuter des frontières du droit privé européen conduit dès lors à discuter des objectifs, des obstacles et des limites de cette européanisation, tout en soulignant la relativité même de la frontière entre droit public et droit privé. ---- European private law results from the continuous interaction between different integration processes. Its expanding scope redraws the shape of many legal boundaries, be they substantive or territorial, and along with these evolutions come mutations in legal regulation. This book considers these phenomena by successively adopting a general/methodological and a specific/disciplinary approach. The degree of Europeanisation varies depending on the legal field involved. To discuss the boundaries of European Private Law leads therefore to discuss the objectives, obstacles and limits to Europeanisation. It also underscores the relativity of the (continental) boundary between public and private law.
L'Institut Européen de l'Expertise et de l'Expert poursuit, parmi ses objectifs, l'identification des convergences possibles des systèmes d'expertise judiciaire nationaux et l'élaboration de propositions pour améliorer la qualité des expertises judiciaires conduites dans l'espace européen.
Cofinancé par la Commission européenne, le projet EGLE (European Guide for Legal Expertise) a permis l'élaboration d'un Guide des bonnes pratiques de l'expertise judiciaire civile dans l'Union européenne.
Préfacée par Giorgio Santacroce, Premier président honoraire de la Cour de cassation italienne et conclue par François Paychère, Président du GT-QUAL (Conseil de l'Europe), le présent ouvrage enrichit et complète le Guide d'une série d'analyses et de réflexions sur leur mise en oeuvre.
The potency of the law in fostering the process of gradual European integration is easily discernable and widely acknowledged. It is largely and conspicuously revealed by the litigation before the courts of, both, the European Union and its Member States.
The concern faithfully to give the European treaty the authentic meaning and scope as intended by its authors permeates the European courts' judgments, and the constant theme of the entitlement of those vested with rights conferred by the law of the European Union to effective judicial protection is omnipresent in their decisions.
The law of European integration has been uncharted territory. The novelty of various issues which have arisen and on which the courts have had to pronounce springs from the originality of the integration venture and is commensurate with its uniqueness, distinctive nature and specific exigencies.
The writings here assembled allow to trace the starting point since the inceptive formative years of the growth of a legal doctrine and an evolving jurisprudential edifice in several areas, to appraise their direction and constancy and to assay adjustments and adaptations.
European private international law is by now based mainly on a large body of uniform rules such as the Regulations Rome I, Rome II, Brussels I, Brussels I bis. This significant legislative output, however, does not take place in a vacuum. Rules of private international law have been earlier (and still are) adopted at national, international and even European level in scattered regulations and directives. The recent plethora of private international law rules gives rise to issues of delineation and calls for some sort of ordering as gaps, overlaps and contradictions become flagrant. At the same time, the resulting interactions can offer new insight, ideas and even opportunities at a more theoretical level.
This book gathers a collection of essays resulting out of a series of international seminars held in Lyon, Barcelona and Louvain-la-Neuve. During those seminars, young researchers selected in an open call for papers had the opportunity to discuss their views among themselves as well as with various specialists of the field, such as more senior academics, EU civil servants, national experts and representatives of other international organisations. The book offers the fresh views of those who will in the future shape the dialectic between the various sources of private international law and attempts to launch a discussion on the “living together” of legal sources.
Two ranges of topics are addressed in the book:
- firstly, the relationship between EU private international law and national law (substantial and procedural) and/or international law (international instruments of private international law or of uniform substantive law); and
- secondly, the relationship between EU private international law and other aspects of EU law (internal market rules of primary law, harmonisation through secondary law and other pieces of legislation enacted in the realm of the area of freedom, security and justice).
Since 1999, the Asian Roundtable on Corporate Governance has brought together the most active and influential policy makers, practitioners and experts on corporate governance in the region, as well as from OECD countries and relevant international institutions. Participants exchange experiences and push forward the reform agenda on corporate governance while promoting awareness and use of the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance as well as the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. This Report supports decision-makers and practitioners in their efforts to take corporate governance to a higher level. It reflects the discussions and conclusions of various recent Roundtable. The next phase of the Roundtable will focus on how to change behaviour to achieve better outcomes.
This book analyses many aspects of the present EU regulatory framework for public contracts, especially public procurement, taking the ongoing reform process into account. First, several chapters discuss the regime of the Public Sector Procurement Directive 2004/18/EC governing the procurement activities of the EU Member States, the coverage of the Directive, qualification and technical specifications, procurement procedures, and award criteria.
A specific chapter describes the EU principles applicable to contracts not covered or partially covered by the Directive, which have been the subject of relevant developments in the case law of the European Court of Justice. Another chapter covers sustainable procurement.
Second, three chapters are devoted to special procurement regimes, namely public private partnerships, defence and utilities. Third, the review and remedies regime for public procurement is covered in two chapter. Fourth, one chapters goes beyond public procurement and looks at the effect of EU law on the contract management of public contracts, after their conclusion. Fifth, three chapters go beyond the regulation of the Member States and look at the EU law regime applicable to contracts of the EU institutions. Sixth and finally, a concluding chapter provides a critique of the EU legal framework by an author from outside the EU.
Les contributions regroupées dans cet ouvrage visent à comprendre les relations et influences à travers le temps entre l’Europe et les États-Unis. S’il existe des différences importantes entre le modèle de société américain et européen, si à certains moments de notre histoire, même récente, des divergences sont apparues, il est essentiel de rappeler les multiples convergences entre ces deux continents. Le couple euro-américain n’est pas un mythe et les évolutions géopolitique et géoéconomique futures ne devraient que l’inciter à approfondir et à intensifier les relations transatlantiques. Outre l’importance de l’objet d’étude traité, cet ouvrage produit une analyse pluridisciplinaire essentielle à la compréhension du sujet et s’appuie sur des auteurs ayant un regard multiculturel.
The contributions gathered in this volume seek to understand the relations and influences across time between Europe and the United States. If there are significant differences between the model of American and European society, if at some point in our history, even recent, some divergences emerged, it is important to remember the numerous similarities between these two continents. Euro-American couple is not a myth and the future geopolitical and geo-economic developments should encourage them to deepen and strengthen transatlantic relations. Besides the importance of the treated study topic, this work supplies a multidisciplinary analysis, essential to the understanding of the subject and is based on authors having a multicultural view.
This work contains the papers of the Tenth Conference on “Antitrust between EU Law and national law”, held in Treviso on May 17 and 18 , 2012 under the patronage of the European Lawyers Union – Union des Avocats Européens (UAE), the Associazione Italiana per la Tutela della Concorrenza - the Italian section of the Ligue Internationale du Droit de la Concurrence (LIDC)-, the Associazione Italiana Giuristi di Impresa (AIGI), the European Company Lawyers Association (ECLA), and the Associazione Antitrust Italiana (AAI). Some of the papers have been extensively reviewed and updated by the authors prior to publication.
Contributions contained in this volume are the result of an in-depth analysis and study of the most salient issues arising from the application of antitrust rules, carried out by experienced and high-ranking professionals, company lawyers, academics and EU/national institutional representatives who attended the Conference. They deal with extremely topical issues, lying at the heart of current antitrust debate. Some of the most contemporary topics include those relative to the large-scale distribution sector and the control of concentrations at both national and European level. Ample consideration is also given to salient antitrust issues encountered in undertakings’ day-to-day business life, as well as to the future of antitrust in the global economy, also in the light of the new powers recently attributed to the Italian Antitrust Authority to challenge administrative acts. This volume also includes some precious insights on the assessment and quantification of damages in antitrust infringements, from both an economic and legal perspective, as well as reflections on the role of judges in the application of antitrust law, also following the principles set forth by the European Court of Human Rights in the well-known Menarini case.
The Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information, developed by the OECD with G20 countries, represents the international consensus on automatic exchange of financial account information for tax purposes, on a reciprocal basis. Over 60 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the Standard and all financial centres have been called to match those commitments, as of July 2014.
This publication is the first edition of the full version of the Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information. It contains the text of the Model Competent Authority Agreement and the Common Reporting Standard, and the Commentaries thereon, as they read on 15 July 2014. It also includes multilateral and nonreciprocal versions of the Model Competent Authority Agreement, the technical modalities and a wider approach to the Common Reporting Standard.
One of the key components of the modernization of competition rules has been a radical departure from the previous «form-based» enforcement to a so-called «effects-based» approach. Taking stock of ten years of experience under this new policy, the present book analyses the changes brought about, as well as the practical problems encountered in its day-to-day application, be it by competition law enforcers, judges or practitioners. This book compiles the reports prepared for the 2011 Annual Conference of the Global Competition Law Centre (“GCLC”). Each and every chapter of this volume formulates concrete proposals as to how the system can be clarified or even improved. The focus is not only on the enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 TFEU, but also in the file of merger control. Attempts are made to define more precisely the boundaries between anticompetitive object and effect, and to develop adequate safe harbours and presumptions. This book also casts a closer look at the analytical framework, possible theories of harm, evidence and defences. Overall the objective is to reconcile as best as possible law and economics, and to see how the goal to achieve the “right decision” in terms of economic outcome can be combined with the legitimate need for legal certainty.
L’ampleur des enjeux humains, économiques et sociaux posés par la question des solidarités entre générations a conduit l’International society of Family Law (ISFL) à choisir ce thème pour son XVe congrès mondial.
Plus de 200 intervenants, venus de 50 pays, ont abordé ces questions sous l’angle juridique, mais aussi philosophique, économique et anthropologique. Cet ouvrage présente une partie de ces communications organisées autour de deux grands thèmes : l’enfant au cœur des solidarités familiales et la prise en charge des aînés par la famille.
Des phénomènes tels que l’allongement de la durée de la vie, l’urbanisation des populations, la difficulté d’entrée sur le marché du travail ou encore l’éclatement des modèles familiaux traditionnels marquent notre monde contemporain et impliquent la disparition d’anciennes solidarités et l’apparition de nouvelles solidarités redessinant les relations entre générations, posant alors le problème du sort des personnes les plus fragiles : les enfants, les malades, les handicapés et, surtout, les personnes âgées.
– Quel est alors le rôle de la famille et des collectivités dans la protection de ces personnes ?
– Quels rapports entre solidarités publiques et solidarités privées ?
– Quels sont les droits et libertés reconnus aux personnes que l’âge, la maladie ou le handicap, placent en situation de dépendances ?
Telles sont les questions au cœur de cet ouvrage.
The importance of the human, economic and social issues caused by the question of generations’ solidarities led the International Society of Family Law to choose this theme for its XVIth World Congress (Lyon, July 19-23rd 2011). More than 200 speakers from 50 countries studied these questions from the legal angle, but also philosophic, economic and anthropological. This work collects a part of these papers about two great issues: the child, as the center of family solidarities; and the support for elders by family.
Phenomena such as increasing life expectancy, population urbanization, labor-market entry barriers, decline of traditional family patterns, mark in depth our contemporary world and involve old solidarity disappearance and new solidarity emergence, reshaping relations between generations while bringing up the problem of the fate of the most vulnerable: children, the sick, disabled, and especially elderly people.
– What then is the role of families and communities in protecting these people?
– What is the relationship between public and private solidarity?
– What are the rights and freedoms of people placed by age, illness or disability in a dependence situation?
These are the issues addressed by the authors of this book.
This review of Chile's urban policy finds that Chile has undergone significant transformation in the past three decades,
including growth in GDP, population levels and urbanisation. This growth has
been a key factor in Chile's success in reaching an improved quality of life.
However, Chile ranks lower than many other OECD member countries on a variety of
urban-related quality-of-life factors, such as income, housing, jobs and the
environment. Chile's urban and metropolitan development practices have
traditionally been sector-driven, and today the need for well-integrated
approaches to urbanism are increasingly recognised among urban policy makers.
This report examines the economic and socio-economic trends in Chile's urban
areas including population growth, and mounting inequality; it analyses four
policy areas with significant implications for national urban programming,
specifically land-use and zoning, housing, public transport, and the
environment; and it examines possible approaches for revitalising the urban
governance structure in metropolitan and urban areas, as well as mechanisms to
reinforce strategic planning and service-delivery capacity.
In Korea's dynamic labour market, job displacement (involuntary job loss due to firm closure or downsizing) affects many workers over the course of their working lives. Some workers are more vulnerable than others to this risk and may face long periods of unemployment/inactivity after displacement, particularly if their skills are not well-matched to emerging job opportunities. Even when they find new jobs, displaced workers tend to be paid less, have fewer benefits and are more likely to be overskilled than in the jobs they held prior to displacement. Helping displaced workers get back into good jobs quickly should be a key goal of labour market policy. To achieve this goal, Korea needs to increase resources devoted to re-employment programmes, such as job-search training and job matching, to improve their performance and better target those who need the most help. Existing training programmes need to be revised to ensure that people are obtaining skills that will help them find work. The social safety net also needs to be strengthened to lower the personal and societal costs of displacement, notably by improving the coverage of unemployment benefits.
Developing growth strategies that promote greener lifestyles requires a good understanding of what factors affect people's behaviour towards the environment. Recent OECD work based on periodic surveys of more than 10 000 households across a number of countries and areas represents a breakthrough by providing a common framework to collect unique empirical evidence for better policy design.
This publication presents responses from the most recent round of the OECD survey implemented in 2011 in 5 areas (energy, food, transport, waste and water) and 11 countries: Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Israel, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
Analysis comparing the data across countries, policy conditions and households' characteristics reveals which measures most effectively change behaviour. Each round of the survey also allows to track changes over time and to explore new emerging issues.
The new survey confirms the importance of providing the right economic incentives for influencing our decisions. The findings indicate that "soft" measures such as labelling and public information campaigns also have a significant complementary role to play. Spurring desirable behaviour change requires a mix of these instruments.
This edition completely replaces the edition that was previously posted in 2011.
This review of health care quality in Denmark examines policies related to quality and includes chapters covering primary and integrated care, hospital specialisation and equity. It finds that with a dense array of disease- and service-focused quality initiatives, and with information on the quality of care stored in separate data repositories, Denmark needs to create effective links and synergies between them to drive up quality in the healthcare system as a whole, rather than in disconnected elements.
Primary care will be central in meeting Denmark's future healthcare challenges of an ageing population with multiple chronic conditions. Therefore, an urgent need is to create a national vision of how a modernised primary care sector will fulfill this new coordination role. National standards, clinical guidelines, accreditation of clinical pathways and targeted financial incentive programmes could support this role, along with more transparent and formalised continual professional development.
To facilitate quality improvement from the ambitious hospital rationalisation, Denmark should collect and disseminate data on the quality of individual physicians as well as the hospitals. Undergraduate training and medical research should be reviewed in light of the new service arrangements. Close surveillance will be needed to monitor whether certain patient groups forego healthcare because travel times to providers are too long. Limited data availability complicate Denmark's ability to monitor its commitment to equitable healthcare. There is an urgent need for renewed action to tackle risk factors of chronic ill-health that disproportionately affect low-income groups. Better information on the impact of user-charges on unmet need in low-income groups is needed.
Governments are major issuers of debt instruments in the global financial market. This volume provides quantitative information on central government debt instruments for the 34 OECD member countries to meet the analytical requirements of users such as policy makers, debt management experts and market analysts. Statistics are presented according to a comprehensive standard framework to allow cross-country comparison. Country methodological notes provide information on debt issuance in each country as well as on the institutional and regulatory framework governing debt management policy and selling techniques.
This report presents the results of the assessment of the organisation of the central government of Sweden. The study looks at reforms that are aimed at improving the quality of services (more value) and efficiency (less money) in central government. Starting with facts and quantitative benchmarks on the Swedish central government, the study reviews recent reforms in Sweden, and makes recommendations in ten selected areas. The study concludes with a survey of the effects on the quality of services and the potential savings.