Entreprise, économie & droit

  • This report evaluates the education reform agenda of Kazakhstan - its feasibility and focus - by taking stock of present-day strengths and weaknesses of the secondary education system. The report also provides guidance on adjusting the reform implementation plans in line with international experiences and best practices regarding educational change, and consolidates much of the previously dispersed (national) data on primary and secondary schools in Kazakhstan into a common analytical base of evidence, validated by the education authorities.

    Chapter 1 of this report provides an overview of the country, it education system and reform plans. Subsequent chapters provide analysis of and recommendations on equity and effectiveness of schooling; assessment and evaluation practices; policies for teachers and principals; expenditure patterns and financing mechanisms; vocational education and training; and a summary of the recommendations.

  • Anglais The Nature of Learning

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 9 Août 2010

    What do we know about how people learn? How do young people's motivations and emotions influence their learning? What does research show to be the benefits of group work, formative assessments, technology applications, or project-based learning and when are they most effective? How is learning affected by family background? These are among the questions addressed for the OECD by leading researchers from North America and Europe. This book brings together the lessons of research on both the nature of learning and different educational applications, and it summarises these as seven key concluding principles.
    Among the contributors are Brigid Barron, Monique Boekaerts, Erik de Corte, Linda Darling-Hammond, Kurt Fischer, Andrew Furco, Richard Mayer, Lauren Resnick, Barbara Schneider, Robert Slavin, James Spillane, Elsbeth Stern and Dylan Wiliam.
    The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice is essential reading for all those interested in knowing what research has to say about how to optimise learning in classrooms, schools and other settings. It aims, first and foremost, to inform practice and educational reform. It will be of particular interest to teachers, education leaders, teacher educators, advisors and decision makers, as well as the research community

  • Against the background of a projected doubling of world greenhouse gas emissions by mid-century, this book explores feasible ways to abate them at least cost. Through quantitative analysis, it addresses key climate policy issues including: an ideal set of climate policy tools; the size of the economic and environmental costs of incomplete country or sector coverage of climate change mitigation policies; how to concretely develop a global carbon market; the case for, and what can we reasonably expect from, R&D and technology support policies; and the incentives for major emitting countries to join a climate change mitigation agreement.

  • National Accounts data is more than just GDP. This book, to be published annually, and its related database present national accounts in a way that reflects the richness inherent in the data and the value that represents for analysts and policymakers. It responds to the Stiglitz Commission's recommendation that policymakers look beyond GDP to get a fuller picture of the entire economy.

    In particular it uses national accounts data to show important findings about households and governments, including important new series on gross adjusted household income and non-financial fixed assets of households. It presents each of the series on a two-page spread, with the page on the left providing information on the meaning, usage, and comparability of the data and the page on the right presenting data from 1995 onwards for the OECD countries as well as graphics highlighting differences among countries.
    This book includes OECD's unique StatLink service, which enables readers to download Excel® versions of tables and graphs. Look for the StatLink at the foot of each table and graph.

  • What impact has globalisation had on transport? And what have been the consequences for the environment? This book aims to answer these questions and more. It looks in detail at how globalisation has affected activity levels in maritime shipping, aviation, and road and rail freight, and assesses the impact that changes in activity levels have had on the environment. The book also discusses policy instruments that can be used to address negative environmental impacts, both from an economic perspective and from the point of view of international law.


    Related reading

    Environmental Outlook to 2030 (2008)
    The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action beyond 2012 (2009)

  • Anglais Eco-innovation in industry

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 13 Janvier 2010

    Eco-innovation will be a key driver of industry efforts to tackle climate change and realise "green growth" in the post-Kyoto era. Eco-innovation calls for faster introduction of breakthrough technologies and for more systemic application of available solutions, including non-technological ones. It also offers opportunities to involve new players, develop new industries and increase competitiveness. Structural change in economies will be imperative in coming decades.
    This book presents the research and analysis carried out during the first phase of the OECD Project on Sustainable Manufacturing and Eco-innovation. Its aim is to provide benchmarking tools on sustainable manufacturing and to spur eco-innovation through better understanding of innovation mechanisms. It reviews the concepts and forms an analytical framework; analyses the nature and processes of eco-innovation; discusses existing sustainable manufacturing indicators; examines methodologies for measuring eco-innovation; and takes stock of national strategies and policy initiatives for eco-innovation.

  • Anglais Economic policy reforms 2010

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 10 Mars 2010

    The world is currently facing the aftermath of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Going for Growth 2010 examines the structural policy measures that have been taken in response to the crisis, evaluates their possible impact on long-term economic growth, and identifies the most imperative reforms needed to strengthen recovery. In addition, it provides a global assessment of policy reforms implemented in OECD member countries over the past five years to boost employment and labour productivity. Reform areas include education systems, product market regulation, agricultural policies, tax and benefit systems, health care and labour market policies. The internationally comparable indicators provided enable countries to assess their economic performance and structural policies in a wide range of areas.
    /> In addition, this issue contains three analytical chapters covering intergenerational social mobility, prudential regulation and competition in banking, and key policy challenges in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa.

  • Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Sweden is the second in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that Swedish policy makers recognise the need to take steps to tackle mental ill-health and its labour market implications, but that a more comprehensive reform effort and a long-term commitment to it is needed in order to prevent problems from arising in the first place and respond more effectively when they do occur.

  • OECD's 2012 survey of Indonesia's economy examines recent economic developments, policy and prospects. Special chapters take a more detailed look at taxation and small and medium enterprise development.

  • This OECD publication includes statistics by detailed type of service on international trade in services for the 34 OECD countries, the European Union and the Euro Area as well as links to definitions and methodological notes. The data are reported within the framework of the fifth and sixth editions of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual and the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification (EBOPS), which is consistent with the balance of payments classification but is more detailed.
    This book includes summary tables by country and by service category and zone totals for the European Union and the Euro Area as well as tables for each individual OECD country and for the EU and the Euro Area showing data for detailed service categories. Series are shown in US dollars and cover the period 2006-2010.
    The data in this publication are also available in database form via www.oecd-ilibrary.org under the title OECD Statistics on International Trade in Services at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/tis-data-en

  • The OECD Economic Outlook is the OECD's twice-yearly analysis of the major economic trends and prospects for the next two years. The Outlook puts forward a consistent set of projections for output, employment, prices, fiscal and current account balances.
    Coverage is provided for all OECD member countries as well as for selected non-member countries. This issue includes a general assessment, chapters summarising developments and providing projections for each individual country and an extensive statistical annex.

  • OECD's 2013 Economic Survey of Colombia examines recent economic developments, policies, and prospects as well as taking a more detailed look at inequality and productivity and growth.

  • Anglais Economic Policy Reforms 2013

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 15 Février 2013

    Going for Growth is the OECD's annual report highlighting developments in structural policies in OECD countries. It identifies structural reform priorities to boost real income for each OECD country and key emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa). The Going for Growth analysis also regularly takes stock of reform implementation in all the countries covered.
    This report provides internationally comparable indicators that enable countries to assess their economic performance and structural policies in a wide range of areas. Each issue also has several thematic studies.

  • Abruzzo is at a tipping point: despite economic, cultural and natural strengths, the region is facing declining economic growth, ageing population and a reduction in outside economic aid. The devastating earthquake that hit the regional capital L'Aquila and its surroundings on 6 April 2009 caused 309 deaths and was a significant economic shock, jeopardizing the long-term growth prospects of an already vulnerable region.
    To increase its resilience to current and future shocks, Abruzzo must encourage innovation-driven growth, based on knowledge and better use of skills, and redesign the city of L'Aquila through technological upgrade to make it more attractive to outsiders and improve the quality of life of its residents.
    The report suggests that Abruzzo should focus on endogenous resources to build its long-term development strategy and, at the same time, to increase the external openness of the regional system to attract more entrepreneurs, students, foreigners and external capital. The economic development and quality of societal life in Abruzzo will strongly depend on how private and public actors will make the best use of existing knowledge, strengthening the cultural and economic networks as a major tool for growth; as well as promoting information sharing, transparency, accountability and community engagement to improve decision making.
    More broadly, the issues raised in the report can help other governments to rethink regional policy, for both regions vulnerable to natural disasters and for those facing long-term decline. As such, eight guiding recommendations for building resilient regions after a disaster are drawn. These guiding recommendations can provide a framework for policy making in other OECD regions.

  • OECD's 2013 Economic Survey of Italy examines recent economic developments, policy and prospects. Its special chapter examines policy implemention: legislation, public administration and rule of law.

  • This study is concerned with trends in and key features of policies and programmes used by governments to support innovation in the business sector. In addition to identifying good practices across a range of programme types, it compares business innovation policies across several countries, with a particular focus on Canada.

  • This review provides an analytical perspective of the current situation, including the construction of a database, in order to help the Greek government define reforms to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and fairness of selected social programmes. The review identifies gaps and overlaps in social protection, and highlights areas where there is room for significant efficiency gains, in order to support informed and concrete decisions by the Greek government on where budgetary savings can most appropriately be made, taking into account the balance between societal groups and the need to maintain social cohesion.

  • The world is becoming increasingly global. This raises important challenges for regulatory processes which still largely emanate from domestic jurisdictions. In order to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and to address global challenges pertaining to systemic risks, the environment, and human health and safety, governments increasingly seek to better articulate regulations across borders and to ensure greater enforcement of rules and their application cross jurisdictions remain largely under-analysed.
    This report gathers in a synthetic manner the knowledge and evidence available to date on the various mechanisms available to governments to promote regulatory co-operation, and their benefits and challenges. The review of evidence confirms the increased internationalisation of regulation, which takes place through a wide variety of mechanisms and multiple actors, and highlights a shift in the nature of IRC from complete 'harmonisation' of regulation to more flexible options - such as mutual recognition agreements. Despite growing regulatory co-operation, however, decision making on IRC is not informed by a clear understanding of benefits costs and success factors of the diverse IRC options.

  • This report assesses the extent to which Dutch water governance is fit for future challenges and sketches an agenda for the reform of water policies in the Netherlands. It builds on a one-year policy dialogue with over 100 Dutch stakeholders, supported by robust analytical work and drawing on international best practice.

  • This report contains the "Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice" review, as well as revised version of the "Phase 1: Legal and Regulatory Framework review" already released for the Philippines.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by 120 jurisdictions, which participate in the Global Forum on an equal footing. The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004. The standards have also been incorporated into the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. Fishing expeditions are not authorised but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction's legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined - Phase 1 and Phase 2 - reviews. The Global Forum has also put in place a process for supplementary reports to follow-up on recommendations, as well as for the ongoing monitoring of jurisdictions following the conclusion of a review. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

    All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.

  • This report contains the "Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice" review for Bermuda, as well as a revised version of the "Phase 1: Legal and Regulatory Framework review" already released for this jurisdiction.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by 120 jurisdictions, which participate in the Global Forum on an equal footing. The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004. The standards have also been incorporated into the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. Fishing expeditions are not authorised but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction's legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined - Phase 1 and Phase 2 - reviews. The Global Forum has also put in place a process for supplementary reports to follow-up on recommendations, as well as for the ongoing monitoring of jurisdictions following the conclusion of a review. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

    All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.

    For more information on the work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and for copies of the published review reports, please refer to www.oecd.org/tax/transparency and www.eoi-tax.org.

  • This report contains the "Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice" review, as well as revised version of the "Phase 1: Legal and Regulatory Framework review" already released for Macao, China.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by 120 jurisdictions, which participate in the Global Forum on an equal footing. The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004. The standards have also been incorporated into the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. Fishing expeditions are not authorised but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction's legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined - Phase 1 and Phase 2 - reviews. The Global Forum has also put in place a process for supplementary reports to follow-up on recommendations, as well as for the ongoing monitoring of jurisdictions following the conclusion of a review. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

    All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.

    For more information on the work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and for copies of the published review reports, please refer to www.oecd.org/tax/transparency and www.eoi-tax.org.

  • Les informations contenues dans cette publication, produites en étroite collaboration par l'OCDE et  Eurostat, rassemblent les statistiques sur les échanges internationaux par catégories détaillées de services pour les 30 pays de l'OCDE, l'Union européenne et la zone euro*, ainsi que des définitions et des notes méthodologiques. Les données sont fournies et publiées selon la cinquième édition du Manuel de la Balance des Paiements du FMI et la Classification élargie des services de la balance des paiements, qui est compatible avec la classification de la balance des paiements tout en étant plus détaillée. 
    Cet ouvrage inclut des tableaux récapitulatifs par pays et par catégories de service et des totaux par zone pour l'Union européenne, la zone euro, G7, ALENA, OCDE - Asie et Pacifique, OCDE - Europe et pour l'ensemble de l'OCDE. Les données par catégories détaillées de services sont également fournies pour chaque pays, pour l'UE et pour la zone euro. Les séries sont exprimées en dollars des États-Unis et couvrent la période 2000-2008.
    ÉGALEMENT DISPONIBLE SUR CD-ROM ET EN LIGNE
    Les utilisateurs désireux d'extraire des données et de construire des tableaux et graphiques peuvent se procurer la version CD-ROM de Statistiques de l'OCDE sur les échanges internationaux de services, tableaux détaillés par catégories de services. Cette version électronique est fournie avec Beyond 20/20TM (sous WindowsTM), un logiciel convivial et très simple d'utilisation. Outre les séries de la version papier, le CD-ROM fournit également pour l'Afrique du sud, le Brésil, la Chine, la Fédération de Russie, l'Inde, et l'Indonésie des pays de l'Union européenne, des données détaillées. La plupart des séries couvrent la période 1985-2008. Par ailleurs, des séries plus longues sont également fournies pour la période 1970-2008 lorsqu'elles sont disponibles. La base de données est également disponible en ligne via  www.SourceOECD.org.
    * PAYS COUVERTS
    Allemagne, Australie, Autriche, Belgique, Canada, Corée, Danemark, Espagne, États-Unis, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Irlande, Islande, Italie, Japon, Luxembourg, Mexique, Pays-Bas, Norvège, Nouvelle-Zélande, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Suède, Suisse, Turquie.   

  • This 2014 OECD Economic Survey of Norway examines recent economic developements, policies and prospects. Special chapters cover real estate markets and financial risk and entrepreneurship.

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