Since 1999, the Asian Roundtable on Corporate Governance has brought together the most active and influential policy makers, practitioners and experts on corporate governance in the region, as well as from OECD countries and relevant international institutions. Participants exchange experiences and push forward the reform agenda on corporate governance while promoting awareness and use of the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance as well as the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. This Report supports decision-makers and practitioners in their efforts to take corporate governance to a higher level. It reflects the discussions and conclusions of various recent Roundtable. The next phase of the Roundtable will focus on how to change behaviour to achieve better outcomes.
This review of corporate governance in Chile describes the corporate governance setting including the structure and ownership concentration of listed companies and the structure and operation of the state-owned sector. It then examines the legal and regulatory framework and company practices to assess the degree to which the recommendations of the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance and the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises have been implemented.
This publication provides information on value added taxes, taxes on goods and services and excise duty rates in OECD member countries. It provides information about indirect tax topics such as international aspects of VAT/GST developments in OECD member countries as well as in selected non-OECD economies. It also describes a range of taxation provisions in OECD countries, such as the taxation of motor vehicles, tobacco and alcoholic beverages.
Developing growth strategies that promote greener lifestyles requires a good understanding of what factors affect people's behaviour towards the environment. Recent OECD work based on periodic surveys of more than 10 000 households across a number of countries and areas represents a breakthrough by providing a common framework to collect unique empirical evidence for better policy design.
This publication presents responses from the most recent round of the OECD survey implemented in 2011 in 5 areas (energy, food, transport, waste and water) and 11 countries: Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Israel, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
Analysis comparing the data across countries, policy conditions and households' characteristics reveals which measures most effectively change behaviour. Each round of the survey also allows to track changes over time and to explore new emerging issues.
The new survey confirms the importance of providing the right economic incentives for influencing our decisions. The findings indicate that "soft" measures such as labelling and public information campaigns also have a significant complementary role to play. Spurring desirable behaviour change requires a mix of these instruments.
This edition completely replaces the edition that was previously posted in 2011.
The Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information, developed by the OECD with G20 countries, represents the international consensus on automatic exchange of financial account information for tax purposes, on a reciprocal basis. Over 60 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the Standard and all financial centres have been called to match those commitments, as of July 2014.
This publication is the first edition of the full version of the Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information. It contains the text of the Model Competent Authority Agreement and the Common Reporting Standard, and the Commentaries thereon, as they read on 15 July 2014. It also includes multilateral and nonreciprocal versions of the Model Competent Authority Agreement, the technical modalities and a wider approach to the Common Reporting Standard.
This review of Chile's urban policy finds that Chile has undergone significant transformation in the past three decades,
including growth in GDP, population levels and urbanisation. This growth has
been a key factor in Chile's success in reaching an improved quality of life.
However, Chile ranks lower than many other OECD member countries on a variety of
urban-related quality-of-life factors, such as income, housing, jobs and the
environment. Chile's urban and metropolitan development practices have
traditionally been sector-driven, and today the need for well-integrated
approaches to urbanism are increasingly recognised among urban policy makers.
This report examines the economic and socio-economic trends in Chile's urban
areas including population growth, and mounting inequality; it analyses four
policy areas with significant implications for national urban programming,
specifically land-use and zoning, housing, public transport, and the
environment; and it examines possible approaches for revitalising the urban
governance structure in metropolitan and urban areas, as well as mechanisms to
reinforce strategic planning and service-delivery capacity.
In Korea's dynamic labour market, job displacement (involuntary job loss due to firm closure or downsizing) affects many workers over the course of their working lives. Some workers are more vulnerable than others to this risk and may face long periods of unemployment/inactivity after displacement, particularly if their skills are not well-matched to emerging job opportunities. Even when they find new jobs, displaced workers tend to be paid less, have fewer benefits and are more likely to be overskilled than in the jobs they held prior to displacement. Helping displaced workers get back into good jobs quickly should be a key goal of labour market policy. To achieve this goal, Korea needs to increase resources devoted to re-employment programmes, such as job-search training and job matching, to improve their performance and better target those who need the most help. Existing training programmes need to be revised to ensure that people are obtaining skills that will help them find work. The social safety net also needs to be strengthened to lower the personal and societal costs of displacement, notably by improving the coverage of unemployment benefits.
This report analyses the results of simulations using an agent based model of financial markets to show how excessive levels of leverage in financial markets can lead to a systemic crash. Investors overload on risky assets betting more than they have to gamble creating a tremendous level of vulnerability in the system as a whole. Plummeting asset prices render banks unable or unwilling to provide credit as they fear they might be unable to cover their own liabilities due to potential loan defaults. Whether an overleveraged borrower is a sovereign nation or major financial institution, recent history illustrates how defaults carry the risk of contagion in a globally interconnected economy. The resulting slowdown of investment in the real economy impacts actors at all levels, from small businesses to homebuyers. Bankruptcies lead to job losses and a drop in aggregate demand, leading to more businesses and individuals being unable to repay their loans, reinforcing a downward spiral that can trigger a recession, depression or bring about stagflation in the real economy. This can have a devastating impact not only on economic prosperity across the board, but also consumer sentiment and trust in the ability of the system to generate long-term wealth and growth.
This review of health care quality in Denmark examines policies related to quality and includes chapters covering primary and integrated care, hospital specialisation and equity. It finds that with a dense array of disease- and service-focused quality initiatives, and with information on the quality of care stored in separate data repositories, Denmark needs to create effective links and synergies between them to drive up quality in the healthcare system as a whole, rather than in disconnected elements.
Primary care will be central in meeting Denmark's future healthcare challenges of an ageing population with multiple chronic conditions. Therefore, an urgent need is to create a national vision of how a modernised primary care sector will fulfill this new coordination role. National standards, clinical guidelines, accreditation of clinical pathways and targeted financial incentive programmes could support this role, along with more transparent and formalised continual professional development.
To facilitate quality improvement from the ambitious hospital rationalisation, Denmark should collect and disseminate data on the quality of individual physicians as well as the hospitals. Undergraduate training and medical research should be reviewed in light of the new service arrangements. Close surveillance will be needed to monitor whether certain patient groups forego healthcare because travel times to providers are too long. Limited data availability complicate Denmark's ability to monitor its commitment to equitable healthcare. There is an urgent need for renewed action to tackle risk factors of chronic ill-health that disproportionately affect low-income groups. Better information on the impact of user-charges on unmet need in low-income groups is needed.
Governments are major issuers of debt instruments in the global financial market. This volume provides quantitative information on central government debt instruments for the 34 OECD member countries to meet the analytical requirements of users such as policy makers, debt management experts and market analysts. Statistics are presented according to a comprehensive standard framework to allow cross-country comparison. Country methodological notes provide information on debt issuance in each country as well as on the institutional and regulatory framework governing debt management policy and selling techniques.
This report presents the results of the assessment of the organisation of the central government of Sweden. The study looks at reforms that are aimed at improving the quality of services (more value) and efficiency (less money) in central government. Starting with facts and quantitative benchmarks on the Swedish central government, the study reviews recent reforms in Sweden, and makes recommendations in ten selected areas. The study concludes with a survey of the effects on the quality of services and the potential savings.
SECCIÓN ESPECIAL: TRIBUTACIÓN Y PYMES EN AMÉRICA LATINA
Estadísticas tributarias en América Latina es una publicación conjunta del Centro de Política y Administración Tributaria y el Centro de Desarrollo de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE), la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) y el Centro Interamericano de Administraciones Tributarias (CIAT). Su objetivo es proporcionar datos internacionalmente comparables sobre los niveles y estructuras tributarias para una selección de economías de América Latina y el Caribe. El modelo seguido es la base de datos Revenue Statistics de la OCDE, la cual es una referencia fundamental, respaldada por una metodología bien establecida, para los países miembros de la OCDE. Al extender esta metodología de la OCDE para América Latina, Estadísticas tributarias en América Latina permite una fácil comparación sobre los niveles y estructuras tributarias no sólo entre las economías de la región sino también entre éstas y las de los países más industrializados.
The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 100 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.
The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.
The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. "Fishing expeditions" are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.
All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction's legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined - Phase 1 plus Phase 2 - reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.
All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.
For more information on the work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and for copies of the published review reports, please visit www.oecd.org/tax/transparency and www.eoi-tax.org.
This publication examines the effects of taxation on employment, highlights the resulting policy challenges, and discusses the ways governments endeavour to address these challenges. Chapter 1 provides a broad overview of the effects of taxation on employment, examining how taxes on labour income can affect both the size of the labour force and the level of unemployment, and highlighting key areas of concern for tax policy makers. This analysis is then augmented in chapters 2-4 by the more detailed analysis of the effects of taxation on the employment of three groups where empirical research suggests that responses of labour supply to taxation may be relatively large: low-income workers, mobile highly-skilled workers, and older workers. As well as highlighting key areas of concern for tax policy makers, the report places a particular focus on the different measures that have been adopted by countries to attempt to overcome these problems, discussing, where possible, the main design features, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches that have been adopted.
This report examines the interplay between banking competition and financial stability, taking into account the experiences in the recent global crisis and the policy response to it. The report has been prepared by members of the Directorate of Financial and Enterprise Affairs at the OECD in Paris for the G20 Workshop "The New Financial Landscape."
Les données sur les recettes des administrations publiques, et sur le produit de la fiscalité en particulier, constituent la base de la plupart des travaux de description des structures economiques et d'analyse economique, et sont de plus en plus utilisées pour les comparaisons internationales. Cette publication annuelle présente un cadre conceptuel dont le but est de définir les recettes publiques devant être assimilées à des impôts et de classifier les différentes catégories d'impôts. Elle constitue également un ensemble unique de statistiques fiscales détaillees et comparables au niveau international, utilisant une presentation identique pour tous les pays de l'OCDE depuis 1965.
Cette publication est également disponible sous forme de base de données en ligne qui permet aux utilisateurs d'extraire des données et de construire des tableaux et graphiques. Elle est disponible via www.oecd-ilibrary.org sous le titre Statistiques fiscales de l'OCDE (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/tax-data-fr).
This report focuses on international practices of ex post evaluation, and particularly on the current efforts to conduct ex post evaluation of laws in Chile. It is divided in two main parts.
The first part of the report provides information and guidance, examples of practice and references on the subject of ex post evaluation in OECD countries, particularly in the Legislative area. It looks at the different definitions of, and motivations for, undertaking evaluation. There is no single template for undertaking ex post legislative evaluation. The objectives and methods to be used will depend on factors such as the nature of the law to be evaluated and the parliamentary and governmental context in which the evaluation takes place.
/> In the second part the report evaluates the current system and process of ex post evaluation of laws in Chile. It discusses the efforts made by the recently established Law Evaluation Department in the Chamber of Representatives, in the framework of the law making process of the country. It revises the current practices in both branches of government, executive and legislative, to conduct ex post evaluation of laws and regulations, as well as the formal and informal mechanisms to prepare laws and regulations and their possible ex post review. The paper revises as well the current programme for law evaluation launched by the Chamber of Representatives and it analyses its main components, in particular methodological approaches and inclusion of citizens` perceptions as a tool to increase transparency.
The report concludes with an assessment of the main challenges that the law evaluation work is facing in Chile and makes some recommendations related to institutional, methodological and governance issues.
Boards of directors of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) play a fundamental role in corporate stewardship and performance. Over the last decade, OECD governments have sought to professionalise SOE boards, ensure their independence and shield them from ad hoc political intervention. In general these approaches have worked; yet, more remains to be done to meet the aspirational standards of established by the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. This report seeks to shed slight on good practices drawing on national practices from over 30 economies.
Entrepreneurship development is an important requirement for achieving of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It is also a means to respond to new economic challenges, to create jobs and to fight social and financial exclusion. The impact of the global financial and economic crisis calls for giving entrepreneurship and self-employment a stronger role in economic and social development policies.
This book collects and synthesizes information and data on entrepreneurship activities in Europe, focusing on people that are at the greatest risk of social exclusion. These groups include young people, older people, women, ethnic minorities and migrants, people with disabilities and the unemployed.
Achieving gender equality in the economy and in the political leadership remains an ongoing challenge across the world. This report aims to address this gap. It provides comparative data and policy benchmarks on women's access to public leadership and inclusive gender-responsive policy-making across OECD countries. The report is prepared in the context of the OECD Gender Initiative, launched by the OECD Ministers.