• Ce numéro spécial du GRAAT regroupe les articles qui proviennent du colloque GRAAT / British Council: Dubliners : "New Critical Approaches / Lectures critiques" qui s'est tenu à Tours les 17 et 18 novembre 2000. Le défilé des textes suit une logique vagabonde: des traductions au texte filmique, des échos - doublage de Dublin - aux répétitions de la lettre. Il se poursuit par une exploration de l'inconscient du texte et se termine, de manière plus orthodoxe, sur le texte lui-même, ses conversations, ses ouvertures, ses reflets, ses sonorités et ses fins.

  • Certain recurrent ideas emerge through the rich diversity of papers collected here under the title Usure et Rupture: the necessity of cultural memory in finding an idiom, the rupture of form to provide a new text which makes sense of the past from the viewpoint of the present, the ways in which the image of usury plays an ambiguous role-both fructifying and economizing the text. A translator's delight, rupture in English can be variously rendered by break up, breaking up, parting, severance, split, rupture, clash, antagonism, discrepancy, gap, disjunction, disruption, discontinuity, reversal, change, etc., which should alert us to the treacherously shifting epistemological grounds onto which we dared to tread. Usure, this gradual process of wearing out, can also become usury: i. e. "excessive interest".

  • This second volume is a companion piece to GRAAT 9 "Ethnic Voices," edited by Claude Julien. It reflects more closely than the first the international participation in our 1991 conference sponsored by the GRAAT of Tours, the CERCA of Orléans and the CETANLA of the Sorbonne Nouvelle. Thanks to Chantal Zabus we have been able to reprint a bibliography of Ken Saro-Wiwa's work to introduce the volume. The essays bear witness to the ongoing work of the participants, when the original papers could not be available or, when, in the case of Ozenwa Ohaeto, after numerous attempts, we were unable to help him attend the conference. In addition, contributions have been solicited from other critics in the field of African American studies for their work highlighted the theoretical position of some of the articles collected here, thus creating a fruitful dialogue.

  • Ce colloque sur John Donne a été organisé les 25 et 26 janvier 2002 au Centre d'Etudes Supérieures de la Renaissance de Tours grâce à l'hospitalité de Gérald Chaix, son directeur, et à la collaboration de chercheurs français et étrangers spécialistes de la Renaissance anglaise. François Laroque a été à la source de cette initiative qui essaie de répondre aux attentes du programme de l'agrégation d'Anglais de 2002, tout faisant une large part aux lectures critiques contemporaines de cette poésie difficile, au seuil de la modernité, qu'est la poésie métaphysique anglaise.

  • De l'analyse menée par Gérard Deléchelle sur les caractéristiques syntaxiques et énonciatives de l'exclamation, tout comme de celle proposée par Marie-Jeanne Rossignol sur le discours expansionniste de la jeune république américaine au début du 19e siècle, il ressort que l'excès définit en creux une norme. Il n'y a, nous dit Jean-Paul Régis, en matière de langage, pas d'excès en soi, tout étant affaire de cadre. L'excès se signalerait ainsi par la mise en relation d'une norme reconnue (au moins implicitement) et d'un objet qui la menace.

  • The first meaning of the word "cliché" is "positive": in typography a cliché is a metal plate upon which an image is reproduced in relief. In photography, however, cliché is a "negative" and, indeed, its most current acceptation is that of commonplace, banality, cultural stereotype, repetition. It makes reproduction possible and authorizes it. Bearing the positive and negative poles in mind, together with the dynamic of their potential inversion, one arrives at the core of the concept of cliché. The aim of the conference was to look at the various forms of manifestation of the cliché as well as the roles played by the cliché in discourse and text, while attending to the relations of the commonplace with banality and violence. As such, it was a logical follow up on our previous reflexion on cultural, historical and textual breaking points ("Usure et rupture").

  • Depuis le vol de la lettre par l'esclave qui accédait à l'écriture au péril de sa vie, le parcours de la lettre noire se fait en référence à la liberté et à l'illettrisme. Écrire est une conquête, un signe d'humanité, un miroir tendu au maître. L'oralité originaire du parler noir et le topos du « livre qui parle » hantent l'écriture de romans complexes qui mettent en abyme les aléas des correspondances. L'épître est aussi, à l'instar des lettres des soeurs Grimké, cette lettre « ouverte », héritière du sermon, qui s'inscrit dans une démarche politique. Lettre de protestation, lettre intime qui se fait publique, elle participe alors aux luttes qui jalonnent l'histoire noire. Retour aux sources, elle est le matériau brut de l'artiste Raymond Saunders. Elle intervient. Elle insiste.
    Retracer la trajectoire de la lettre dans la culture afro-américaine, tel est le but de ces essais qui portent sur les lettres de prison (George Jackson et Mumia Abu-Jamal), le roman épistolaire (Alice Walker) et ses avatars dans le roman postmoderne contemporain (John Edgar Wideman, Percival Everett), et les correspondances d'écrivains avec leurs éditeurs (James Baldwin, Charles Chesnutt, Richard Wright).

  • "Sex in America," the plenary lecture delivered by Stuart Michaels, held in its title the promise of an immediate answer to the 1995 Congress of the A. F.E. A. (Association Française d'Études Américaines): "Sexualités aux États Unis: Expression et répression." A sociologist at the University of Chicago, Michaels participated in a survey of sexual behavior in 1988 later published as The Social Organization of Sexuality and Sex in America in 1994. The study received intense media attention and made the cover of Time magazine on October 17, 1994, with the subtitle "the most important survey since the Kinsey Report". But Michaels tried instead to draw attention to its checkered political history and to the discrepancy between the media coverage and the methods and findings of the research. The survey originated during the Reagan administration in response to the AIDS epidemic and became in 1989 the target of right wing politicians, such as Jesse Helms. The results of the study, which, among other things, revealed a lower percentage of homosexual behavior than expected, were perceived as good news by the general media which promptly read the findings as a celebration of heterosexual marriage. To Michaels, these results show puzzling discrepancies between men's and women's reports of their experience of sexuality and reveal a disturbing chasm between social science research and the work done in Gender, Gay and Lesbian Studies. His acknowledgment is that large surveys, such as this, automatically reflect the middle, the average, the masses, and that self-report does not necessarily coincide with sexual behavior. A strong opening statement on the politics of sexuality, his contribution straddles the two interrelated issues of this volume: theoretical questioning and institutional responses. It also demonstrates a deep concern for a responsible health policy to fight the AIDS epidemic.

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