Entreprise, économie & droit

  • La cohabitation des princes finit dans le désenchantement parce qu'elle ne reflète pas la cohabitation des citoyens.

  • Une histoire du service national en France, qui prit les traits du service militaire pendant deux siècles.

  • Ce livre conduit pas à pas le maire ou son adjoint vers ses responsabilités d'urbaniste, obligatoires et facultatives, de l'élaboration du projet global jusqu'à la phase opérationnelle.

  • Présente les différentes caractéristiques géographiques, économiques et historiques de cette région, théâtre d'intenses bouleversements : militarisation de l'État algérien, poussée démocratique au Maroc, répression de l'islamisme en Tunisie.

  • Cet ouvrage est une réédition numérique d'un livre paru au XXe siècle, désormais indisponible dans son format d'origine.

  • Cet ouvrage s´appuie sur les principales conclusions et recommandations ressortant des évaluations réalisées par les donneurs pour recenser les facteurs qui ont contribué au succès (ou à l´échec) des programmes passés et prodiguer des conseils destinés à accroître l´efficacité et l´impact des activités futures d´aide liée au commerce. Ce rapport vient à point nommé pour alimenter le débat en cours entre spécialistes de l´aide et des échanges sur les moyens de faire en sorte que " l´aide à l´appui des échanges " constitue, de par sa conception et ses modes d´acheminement, un complément efficace au PDD.

  • National Accounts data is more than just GDP. This book, to be published annually, and its related database present national accounts in a way that reflects the richness inherent in the data and the value that represents for analysts and policymakers. It responds to the Stiglitz Commission´s recommendation that policymakers look beyond GDP to get a fuller picture of the entire economy.

    In particular is uses national accounts data to show important findings about households and governments, including important new series on gross adjusted household income and non-financial fixed assets of households. It presents each of the series on a two-page spread, with the page on the left providing information on the meaning, usage, and comparability of the data and the page on the right presenting data from 1995 onwards for the OECD countries as well as graphics highlighting differences among countries.

    This book includes OECD´s unique StatLink service, which enables readers to download Excel(r) versions of tables and graphs. Look for the StatLink at the foot of each table and graph.

  • What impact has globalisation had on transport? And what have been the consequences for the environment? This book aims to answer these questions and more. It looks in detail at how globalisation has affected activity levels in maritime shipping, aviation, and road and rail freight, and assesses the impact that changes in activity levels have had on the environment. The book also discusses policy instruments that can be used to address negative environmental impacts, both from an economic perspective and from the point of view of international law.
    Related reading :
    Environmental Outlook to 2030 (2008) The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action beyond 2012 (2009)

  • Anglais Eco-innovation in industry

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 13 Janvier 2010

    Eco-innovation will be a key driver of industry efforts to tackle climate change and realise "green growth" in the post-Kyoto era. Eco-innovation calls for faster introduction of breakthrough technologies and for more systemic application of available solutions, including non-technological ones. It also offers opportunities to involve new players, develop new industries and increase competitiveness. Structural change in economies will be imperative in coming decades.

    This book presents the research and analysis carried out during the first phase of the OECD Project on Sustainable Manufacturing and Eco-innovation. Its aim is to provide benchmarking tools on sustainable manufacturing and to spur eco- innovation through better understanding of innovation mechanisms. It reviews the concepts and forms an analytical framework; analyses the nature and processes of eco-innovation; discusses existing sustainable manufacturing indicators; examines methodologies for measuring eco-innovation; and takes stock of national strategies and policy initiatives for eco-innovation.

  • Mesurer l´innovation: Un nouveau regard propose de nouveaux outils de mesure ainsi qu´une nouvelle perspective sur les indicateurs classiques.  Cette publication se fonde sur les cinquante années d´expérience de l´OCDE dans l´élaboration d´indicateurs, pour aller au-delà de la R-D et décrire le contexte plus large dans lequel s´inscrit l´innovation. Elle présente des indicateurs expérimentaux qui renseignent sur de nouveaux domaines d´action des pouvoirs publics.  Elle met aussi en évidence les lacunes du dispositif de mesure et propose des solutions pour y remédier.
      Cette publication commence par décrire l´innovation aujourd´hui. Elle examine les facteurs qui incitent les entreprises à innover et montrent comment la convergence, l´interdisciplinarité et la nouvelle géographie des pôles d´innovation transforment le paysage de la science et de la recherche. Cette publication élargit la panoplie d´outils de mesure de l´innovation, en utilisant par exemple de nouveaux indicateurs sur les investissements dans les actifs immatériels et sur les marques déposées.
      Le capital humain étant au coeur de l´innovation, une série d´indicateurs vise à rendre compte de la contribution des systèmes d´enseignement au socle de la connaissance et de la recherche. D´autres séries montrent comment les entreprises transforment les compétences et le savoir. A l´aide d´exemples concrets concernant les grands enjeux planétaires tels la santé ou le changement climatique, ces séries éclairent aussi les différents rôles des investissements publics et privés pour encourager l´innovation et en récolter les fruits.

      Mesurer l´innovation marque une étape importante dans l´évolution vers l´élaboration de politiques d´innovation étayées par des données concrètes. Cette publication complète les indicateurs « de positionnement »  classiques par de nouveaux outils qui soulignent comment l´innovation est, ou pourrait être, liée à la politique menée. Elle constate également qu´il reste encore beaucoup à faire et met en évidence les tâches qui doivent retenir l´attention des statisticiens, chercheurs et décideurs en matière de mesure de l´innovation.
      Pour obtenir de plus amples informations sur la Stratégie de l´OCDE pour l´innovation, voir www.oecd.org/innovation/strategie.

      Pour en savoir plus La Stratégie de l´OCDE pour l´innovation : Pour prendre une longueur d´avance  

  • This annual publication analyses recent developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries. It looks at the contribution of immigration to changes in the working-age population in the past decade, and the role of migration inflows at projected levels in driving growth of the working-age population in the next decade. It presents information on  international students, including a first attempt to calculate the rates at which these students remain in their host countries after the completion of their studies.   This publication also explores the main changes introduced in migration policies, including new laws governing  immigrant entry, stay and access to the labour market. The selective recruitment of immigrants according to labour market needs and points-based systems is described, as well as measures to facilitate the integration of immigrants. International co-operation to improve border control and to combat irregular migration is analysed in detail.  The impact of the economic crisis on the labour market outcomes of immigrants is examined, taking into consideration gender, sectors of employment and different types of contracts, as well as the demographic dynamics of native and foreign-born populations during the period under review.  The reader will also find in this book two special chapters on topical issues. The first addresses the determinants of public opinion regarding migration, reviewing opinion surveys to identify individual determinants and examining the role of different stakeholders in shaping opinion.  The second chapter presents an in-depth study of the impact of naturalisation on the labour market outcomes of immigrants, exploring how acquisition of citizenship can increase opportunities.
    Country notes, together with standardised tables, describe recent developments in migration movements and policies.
    The statistical annex contains the latest data on migration flows, foreign and foreign-born populations, and naturalisations. This book includes StatLinks, URLs under statistical graphs and tables linking to the underlying statistical data.

  • Statistiques de base de la Nouvelle-Zélande, Résumé, Évaluation et recommandations, Ajustements macroéconomiques dans le contexte de la crise, Les politiques structurelles requises pour surmonter les obstacles géographiques et promouvoir la prospérité, Réforme du système de santé Les défis de la prochaine étape

  • OECD's comprehensive review of Greece's environmental programs and policies, covering air and water management, nature and biodiversity, sustainable development, the environment-economy interface, the environment-social interface, and international commitments. The review includes relevant statistical information as well as a series of recommendations for strengthening environmental infrastructure, implementing environmental policy and integrating environmental concerns into economic decisions.

  • Although learning often takes place within formal settings and designated environments, a great deal of valuable learning also occurs either deliberately or informally in everyday life. Policy makers in OECD countries have become increasingly aware that non-formal and informal learning represents a rich source of human capital.
    Policies which recognise this can play a significant role in a coherent lifelong learning framework, and present practices can be improved to make the knowledge and competencies people acquire outside of formal schooling more visible. The challenge for policy makers is to develop processes for recognising such learning, processes that will generate net benefits both to individuals and to society at large.
    This report, based on an OECD review in 22 countries, explores the advantages of recognising non-formal and informal learning outcomes, takes stock of existing policies and practices, and recommends how to organise recognition of these learning systems.

  • Passengers and freight shippers alike want reliable transport services.  Surprisingly, little research has been undertaken in incorporating reliability into the assessment of transport projects despite the increasing importance of scheduling in economic activities.
    This report provides policy makers with a framework to understand reliability issues, to incorporate reliability into project assessment and to design reliability management policies. It also explores a range of reliability performance measures. Case studies across OECD and ITF countries provide examples of several core policy tools that can be used to deliver more reliable networks in a cost-effective manner.
    The report makes significant progress in identifying appropriate methodology for incorporating reliability into policy and project evaluation, as well as exploring the pitfalls that need to be avoided.

  • OECD's comprehensive 2010 review of labour market and social policies in Estonia. It finds that since Estonia regained its independence in 1991, its labour and social policies have been marked by a strong commitment to fiscal prudence, flexible markets, and work incentives. Labour market performance steadily improved during the mid-1990s and beyond, until the advent of the global economic crisis in 2008. Estonia was not well prepared for the slowdown and its economy has been hit especially hard. The downturn has required painful policy adjustments. Today, Estonia´s public social spending remains among the lowest in the OECD; its social programmes support persons in need, but the benefits they receive are usually modest and some of the jobless receive no benefits. However, the country offers one of the world's most generous parental-benefit programmes and has begun to phase in a three-tier pension system. 

  • Cet Examen des politiques de l´investissement analyse les résultats accomplis par le Maroc dans la mise en place d´un régime d'investissement plus ouvert et transparent ainsi que ses efforts pour réduire les restrictions aux investissements étrangers.
    En reconnaissance du progrès réalisé dans la réforme de ses politiques de l'investissement en vue d'améliorer le climat des affaires, le Maroc est devenu en novembre 2009 le 42ème signataire de la Déclaration de l'OCDE sur l'investissement international et les entreprises multinationales. En tant qu'adhérent à la Déclaration, le Maroc s'engage à garantir l'égalité de traitement des investisseurs étrangers et à promouvoir un comportement responsable des entreprises. En retour, les autres adhérents à la Déclaration garantissent aux investisseurs marocains un traitement équitable à l'étranger.
    Cet Examen est une expression de la mission de l'OCDE consistant à aider tous les gouvernements  à améliorer le climat de l´investissement dans leur pays grâce à l´apprentissage entre pairs et au partage des pratiques les plus efficaces.

  • Pourquoi certaines régions ont-elles une croissance plus rapide que d´autres  qui ne se conforme pas toujours aux théories économiques ?  Celles-ci sont des questions centrales dans le climat économique actuel où les décideurs cherchent des moyens pour stimuler une nouvelle croissance durable.  L´analyse de l´OCDE suggère qu´il n´y a pas de modèle unique pour la politique régionale et donc les manières par lesquelles les régions se développent sont très variées.  Pour assurer une croissance à long terme ce n´est pas suffisant de concentrer les ressources au bon endroit.  S´appuyant sur des travaux récents de l´OCDE, notamment sur une analyse de données régionales, des examens des politiques et des études de cas, ce rapport soutient que ce sont à la fois la façon dont les investissements sont réalisés, les atouts régionaux utilisés et les synergies exploitées qui vont déterminer les différences entre régions.  L´investissement public doit faire des priorités sur les impacts de la croissance de la productivité à plus long terme et associer les mesures de façon intégrée.  Ceci souligne l´importance des régions et de la politique régionale dans la croissance économique et encourage une nouvelle approche des réformes économiques.

  • Oecd employment outlook 2010

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 7 Juillet 2010

    The OECD Employment Outlook 2010 is OECD´s annual report on employment and labour markets in the OECD area and beyond.  Opening with an editorial which analyses the immediate policy challenges and provides advice for OECD governments, and a first chapter that sets out the facts and figures related to recent employment developments and sets them in the broader economic context,  this volume goes on to provide analysis in three specific policy areas: the jobs impact and policy response in emerging economies, institutional and policy determinants of labour market flows, and the quality of part-time work. The volume closes with a statistical annex which provides the latest available employment data.  This book includes StatLinks, URLs under each graph and table linking to spreadsheets showing the underlying data.

  • This review presents a general picture of the overall regulatory reform frameworks in Italy, examining quality regulation, competition policy and professional services. The review also offers a special focus on multi-level governance, where key issues include local public services, commercial distribution, local transport and energy.

    The review finds that Italy has made significant progress using regulatory reform since the first OECD review in 2001. Administrative simplification and the increasing role of competition policy, combined with devolution of state powers to regions, have helped. But there are still key challenges for regulatory policy and its implementation, including enforcement, capacity in the civil service, impact analysis for evidence-based decision-making, and building a culture of consultation. The current global economic crisis is an opportunity for Italy to further clarify how the state intervenes in the economy, to improve multi-level co-ordination, and to expand competition in specific sectors.

  • OECD's 2010 review of the US economy.  This edition looks at rebalancing the economy following the crisis, restoring fiscal sustainability, and the special feature covers implementing cost-effective policies to mitigate climate change.

  • This 2009 review of Ireland's environmental conditions and policies evaluates progress in reducing the pollution burden, improving natural resource management, integrating environmental and economic policies, and strengthening international co-operation. The analyses presented are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data.

  • OECD countries have made significant reform progress in recent decades, in fields as diverse as competition policy, health care and the environment. How have they done it? And why have reforms advanced in some places and stalled in others? This collection of essays analyses the reform experiences of the 30 OECD countries in nine major policy domains in order to identify lessons, pitfalls and strategies that may help foster policy reform in the future. While taking full account of the tremendous differences in the political and institutional settings in which these reforms were undertaken, the authors highlight a number of common challenges and potential solutions that hold good across both countries and issue areas. They show that the scope for cross-national policy learning is enormous.
    The importance of such reform lessons is all the greater in the wake of the global financial and economic crisis. As OECD governments confront the challenge of trying to restore public finances to health without undermining the recovery, they will need to pursue a careful mix of fiscal policies and growth-enhancing structural reforms. Designing, adopting and implementing such a policy mix will require the crafting of effective reforms and effective strategies for implementing them.

  • Rebuilding fisheries is a key challenge for many countries as some stocks are in a poor state while others are depleted.  In May 2009, economists, biologists, fisheries managers and policy makers participated in an OECD Workshop on the Economics of Rebuilding Fisheries. The workshop was designed to identify and analyse economic uncertainties, policy issues, biological conditions and information constraints, and to review the role of key players in program delivery. This conference proceedings presents an overview of the major economic and institutional issues associated with rebuilding fisheries and provides examples of national and international initiatives.

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