Cet ouvrage s´appuie sur les principales conclusions et recommandations ressortant des évaluations réalisées par les donneurs pour recenser les facteurs qui ont contribué au succès (ou à l´échec) des programmes passés et prodiguer des conseils destinés à accroître l´efficacité et l´impact des activités futures d´aide liée au commerce. Ce rapport vient à point nommé pour alimenter le débat en cours entre spécialistes de l´aide et des échanges sur les moyens de faire en sorte que " l´aide à l´appui des échanges " constitue, de par sa conception et ses modes d´acheminement, un complément efficace au PDD.
National Accounts data is more than just GDP. This book, to be published annually, and its related database present national accounts in a way that reflects the richness inherent in the data and the value that represents for analysts and policymakers. It responds to the Stiglitz Commission´s recommendation that policymakers look beyond GDP to get a fuller picture of the entire economy.
In particular is uses national accounts data to show important findings about households and governments, including important new series on gross adjusted household income and non-financial fixed assets of households. It presents each of the series on a two-page spread, with the page on the left providing information on the meaning, usage, and comparability of the data and the page on the right presenting data from 1995 onwards for the OECD countries as well as graphics highlighting differences among countries.
This book includes OECD´s unique StatLink service, which enables readers to download Excel(r) versions of tables and graphs. Look for the StatLink at the foot of each table and graph.
What impact has globalisation had on transport? And what have been the consequences for the environment? This book aims to answer these questions and more. It looks in detail at how globalisation has affected activity levels in maritime shipping, aviation, and road and rail freight, and assesses the impact that changes in activity levels have had on the environment. The book also discusses policy instruments that can be used to address negative environmental impacts, both from an economic perspective and from the point of view of international law.
Related reading :
Environmental Outlook to 2030 (2008) The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action beyond 2012 (2009)
Eco-innovation will be a key driver of industry efforts to tackle climate change and realise "green growth" in the post-Kyoto era. Eco-innovation calls for faster introduction of breakthrough technologies and for more systemic application of available solutions, including non-technological ones. It also offers opportunities to involve new players, develop new industries and increase competitiveness. Structural change in economies will be imperative in coming decades.
This book presents the research and analysis carried out during the first phase of the OECD Project on Sustainable Manufacturing and Eco-innovation. Its aim is to provide benchmarking tools on sustainable manufacturing and to spur eco- innovation through better understanding of innovation mechanisms. It reviews the concepts and forms an analytical framework; analyses the nature and processes of eco-innovation; discusses existing sustainable manufacturing indicators; examines methodologies for measuring eco-innovation; and takes stock of national strategies and policy initiatives for eco-innovation.
L´OCDE a procédé à des examens de la politique de formation des migrants en Autriche, au Danemark, en Irlande, en Norvège, aux Pays-Bas et en Suède, et s´est penchée sur l´expérience de nombreux pays en matière de formation de cette population. Cette publication offre des données comparatives sur l´accès, la participation, et les résultats scolaires des élèves issus de l´immigration par rapport aux autres élèves, et recense une série d´options pour l´action publique, à la lumière d´expériences réussies.
Mesurer l´innovation: Un nouveau regard propose de nouveaux outils de mesure ainsi qu´une nouvelle perspective sur les indicateurs classiques. Cette publication se fonde sur les cinquante années d´expérience de l´OCDE dans l´élaboration d´indicateurs, pour aller au-delà de la R-D et décrire le contexte plus large dans lequel s´inscrit l´innovation. Elle présente des indicateurs expérimentaux qui renseignent sur de nouveaux domaines d´action des pouvoirs publics. Elle met aussi en évidence les lacunes du dispositif de mesure et propose des solutions pour y remédier.
Cette publication commence par décrire l´innovation aujourd´hui. Elle examine les facteurs qui incitent les entreprises à innover et montrent comment la convergence, l´interdisciplinarité et la nouvelle géographie des pôles d´innovation transforment le paysage de la science et de la recherche. Cette publication élargit la panoplie d´outils de mesure de l´innovation, en utilisant par exemple de nouveaux indicateurs sur les investissements dans les actifs immatériels et sur les marques déposées.
Le capital humain étant au coeur de l´innovation, une série d´indicateurs vise à rendre compte de la contribution des systèmes d´enseignement au socle de la connaissance et de la recherche. D´autres séries montrent comment les entreprises transforment les compétences et le savoir. A l´aide d´exemples concrets concernant les grands enjeux planétaires tels la santé ou le changement climatique, ces séries éclairent aussi les différents rôles des investissements publics et privés pour encourager l´innovation et en récolter les fruits.
Mesurer l´innovation marque une étape importante dans l´évolution vers l´élaboration de politiques d´innovation étayées par des données concrètes. Cette publication complète les indicateurs « de positionnement » classiques par de nouveaux outils qui soulignent comment l´innovation est, ou pourrait être, liée à la politique menée. Elle constate également qu´il reste encore beaucoup à faire et met en évidence les tâches qui doivent retenir l´attention des statisticiens, chercheurs et décideurs en matière de mesure de l´innovation.
Pour obtenir de plus amples informations sur la Stratégie de l´OCDE pour l´innovation, voir www.oecd.org/innovation/strategie.
Pour en savoir plus La Stratégie de l´OCDE pour l´innovation : Pour prendre une longueur d´avance
This annual publication analyses recent developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries. It looks at the contribution of immigration to changes in the working-age population in the past decade, and the role of migration inflows at projected levels in driving growth of the working-age population in the next decade. It presents information on international students, including a first attempt to calculate the rates at which these students remain in their host countries after the completion of their studies. This publication also explores the main changes introduced in migration policies, including new laws governing immigrant entry, stay and access to the labour market. The selective recruitment of immigrants according to labour market needs and points-based systems is described, as well as measures to facilitate the integration of immigrants. International co-operation to improve border control and to combat irregular migration is analysed in detail. The impact of the economic crisis on the labour market outcomes of immigrants is examined, taking into consideration gender, sectors of employment and different types of contracts, as well as the demographic dynamics of native and foreign-born populations during the period under review. The reader will also find in this book two special chapters on topical issues. The first addresses the determinants of public opinion regarding migration, reviewing opinion surveys to identify individual determinants and examining the role of different stakeholders in shaping opinion. The second chapter presents an in-depth study of the impact of naturalisation on the labour market outcomes of immigrants, exploring how acquisition of citizenship can increase opportunities.
Country notes, together with standardised tables, describe recent developments in migration movements and policies.
The statistical annex contains the latest data on migration flows, foreign and foreign-born populations, and naturalisations. This book includes StatLinks, URLs under statistical graphs and tables linking to the underlying statistical data.
Statistiques de base de la Nouvelle-Zélande, Résumé, Évaluation et recommandations, Ajustements macroéconomiques dans le contexte de la crise, Les politiques structurelles requises pour surmonter les obstacles géographiques et promouvoir la prospérité, Réforme du système de santé Les défis de la prochaine étape
The movement of personnel between employment in the public and private sectors, referred to as the "revolving door" phenomenon, raises particular attention in the context of the response of governments to the financial and economic crisis. This OECD survey of 30 member countries shows that the vast majority of countries have established basic standards for preventing post-public employment conflict of interest. But few have tailored these standards to address risk areas and professions such as regulators or public procurement officials. Enforcing standards and imposing suitable sanctions remains a challenge for many countries.
The principles presented in this volume serve as a point of reference for policy makers and managers to review and modernise post-public employment policies. It is part of the pathfinding efforts of the OECD to promote public sector integrity for cleaner, fairer and stronger economies.
OECD's comprehensive review of Greece's environmental programs and policies, covering air and water management, nature and biodiversity, sustainable development, the environment-economy interface, the environment-social interface, and international commitments. The review includes relevant statistical information as well as a series of recommendations for strengthening environmental infrastructure, implementing environmental policy and integrating environmental concerns into economic decisions.
Although learning often takes place within formal settings and designated environments, a great deal of valuable learning also occurs either deliberately or informally in everyday life. Policy makers in OECD countries have become increasingly aware that non-formal and informal learning represents a rich source of human capital.
Policies which recognise this can play a significant role in a coherent lifelong learning framework, and present practices can be improved to make the knowledge and competencies people acquire outside of formal schooling more visible. The challenge for policy makers is to develop processes for recognising such learning, processes that will generate net benefits both to individuals and to society at large.
This report, based on an OECD review in 22 countries, explores the advantages of recognising non-formal and informal learning outcomes, takes stock of existing policies and practices, and recommends how to organise recognition of these learning systems.
Passengers and freight shippers alike want reliable transport services. Surprisingly, little research has been undertaken in incorporating reliability into the assessment of transport projects despite the increasing importance of scheduling in economic activities.
This report provides policy makers with a framework to understand reliability issues, to incorporate reliability into project assessment and to design reliability management policies. It also explores a range of reliability performance measures. Case studies across OECD and ITF countries provide examples of several core policy tools that can be used to deliver more reliable networks in a cost-effective manner.
The report makes significant progress in identifying appropriate methodology for incorporating reliability into policy and project evaluation, as well as exploring the pitfalls that need to be avoided.
The markets for goods and services have undergone significant changes over the past 20 years. Regulatory reform, more open global markets, new technologies, and growth in the role of services in economic activity have driven the changes, which in many instances have provided significant benefits to consumers. Relatively little attention has been paid to the challenges these developments have posed for consumers. More choice and more complexity in many markets have made it increasingly difficult for them to compare and assess the value of products and services. The challenges for consumers have raised similar challenges for the government authorities responsible for protecting them from unfair commercial practices and fraud. This book examines how markets have evolved and provides insights for improved consumer policy making. It explores, for the first time, how what we have learned through the study of behavioural economics is changing the way policy makers are addressing problems.
This review of regional policy in Sweden finds that Sweden has recently renewed focus on promoting development opportunities in all regions and has introduced a gradual regionalisation process with a strong bottom-up approach. Yet challenges remain, particularly concerning knowledge diffusion and urban-rural linkages. Further efforts to achieve critical mass and improve co-ordination can help better address local needs. This Review explores the potential for enhanced innovation and entrepreneurship in both urban and rural areas and provides recommendations to strengthen Sweden´s regional development strategies through improved governance mechanisms, both regionally and across levels of government.
Dedicated public-private partnership (PPP) units are organisations set up with full or partial aid of the government to ensure that the skills needed to handle third-party provision of goods and services are made available and clustered together within government. Such units enhance the capacity of government to successfully manage the risks associated with a growing number and value of PPPs. Although a relatively recent phenomenon, in 2009 more than half of all OECD countries reported the existence of a dedicated unit of some kind. This book provides an overview of dedicated PPP units in OECD countries, including case studies covering: the State of Victoria (Australia), Germany, Korea, South Africa (an OECD enhanced engagement country), and the United Kingdom. It examines the functions and locations of dedicated PPP units, the role they play in the procurement process and the lessons learned for other countries that have already established or are considering establishing a dedicated PPP unit.
Further reading Public-Private Partnerships: In Pursuit of Risk Sharing and Value for Money (OECD, 2008)
Well-timed and targeted innovation boosts productivity, increases economic growth and helps solve societal problems. But how can governments encourage more people to innovate more of the time? And how can government itself be more innovative?
The OECD Innovation Strategy provides a set of principles for fostering innovation in people (workers and consumers), in firms and in government. It takes an in-depth look at the scope of innovation and how it is changing, as well as where and how it is occurring. The result is the formulation of far-reaching policies for innovation using recent research and data.
For more information about the OECD Innovation Strategy, see www.oecd.org/innovation/strategy.
"a thoughtful new report on how governments can do better at spurring and measuring innovation." -The Economist
Obesity has risen to the top of the public health policy agenda worldwide. Before 1980, rates were generally well below 10%. They have since doubled or tripled in many countries, and in almost half of the OECD, 50% or more of the population is overweight. A key risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, obesity is a major public health concern. There is a popular perception that explanations for the obesity epidemic are simple and solutions within reach. But the data reveal a more complicated picture, one in which even finding objective evidence on the phenomenon is difficult. Policy makers, health professionals and academics all face challenges in understanding the epidemic and devising effective counter strategies. This book contributes to evidence-based policy making by exploring multiple dimensions of the obesity problem. It examines the scale and characteristics of the epidemic, the respective roles and influence of market forces and governments, and the impact of interventions. It outlines an economic approach to the prevention of chronic diseases that provides novel insights relative to a more traditional public health approach.
The analysis was undertaken by the OECD, partly in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The main chapters are complemented by special contributions from health and obesity experts, including Marc Suhrcke, Tim Lobstein, Donald Kenkel and Francesco Branca.
"This book presents a valuable set of results and suggestions about the best preventive interventions to reduce the burden of obesity. It will aid any country concerned about this burden in defining public policies aimed at altering current trends." - Julio Frenk, Dean, Harvard School of Public Health "The positive message of this book is that the obesity epidemic can be successfully addressed by comprehensive strategies involving multiple interventions directed at individuals and populations." - Ala Alwan, Assistant Director-General, World Health Organization "This innovative and well-researched book combines insights from a wide range of disciplines. It provides a clear exposition of the evidence that policy makers need to take action." - Martin McKee, Professor of European Public Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
The importance of effective regulation has never been so clear as it is today, in the wake of the worst economic downturn since the Great Depression. But how exactly can Better Regulation policy improve countries´ economic and social welfare prospects, underpin sustained growth and strengthen their resilience? What, in fact, is effective regulation? What should be the shape and direction of Better Regulation policy over the next decade? To respond to these questions, the OECD has launched, in partnership with the European Commission, a major project examining Better Regulation developments in 15 OECD countries in the EU, including Sweden. Each report maps and analyses the core issues which together make up effective regulatory management, laying down a framework of what should be driving regulatory policy and reform in the future. Issues examined include:
O Strategy and policies for improving regulatory management.
O Institutional capacities for effective regulation and the broader policy making context.
O Transparency and processes for effective public consultation and communication.
O Processes for the development of new regulations, including impact assessment, and for the management of the regulatory stock, including administrative burdens.
O Compliance rates, enforcement policy and appeal processes.
O The multilevel dimension: interface between different levels of government and interface between national processes and those of the EU.
The participating countries are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
OECD's comprehensive 2010 review of labour market and social policies in Estonia. It finds that since Estonia regained its independence in 1991, its labour and social policies have been marked by a strong commitment to fiscal prudence, flexible markets, and work incentives. Labour market performance steadily improved during the mid-1990s and beyond, until the advent of the global economic crisis in 2008. Estonia was not well prepared for the slowdown and its economy has been hit especially hard. The downturn has required painful policy adjustments. Today, Estonia´s public social spending remains among the lowest in the OECD; its social programmes support persons in need, but the benefits they receive are usually modest and some of the jobless receive no benefits. However, the country offers one of the world's most generous parental-benefit programmes and has begun to phase in a three-tier pension system.
Cet Examen des politiques de l´investissement analyse les résultats accomplis par le Maroc dans la mise en place d´un régime d'investissement plus ouvert et transparent ainsi que ses efforts pour réduire les restrictions aux investissements étrangers.
En reconnaissance du progrès réalisé dans la réforme de ses politiques de l'investissement en vue d'améliorer le climat des affaires, le Maroc est devenu en novembre 2009 le 42ème signataire de la Déclaration de l'OCDE sur l'investissement international et les entreprises multinationales. En tant qu'adhérent à la Déclaration, le Maroc s'engage à garantir l'égalité de traitement des investisseurs étrangers et à promouvoir un comportement responsable des entreprises. En retour, les autres adhérents à la Déclaration garantissent aux investisseurs marocains un traitement équitable à l'étranger.
Cet Examen est une expression de la mission de l'OCDE consistant à aider tous les gouvernements à améliorer le climat de l´investissement dans leur pays grâce à l´apprentissage entre pairs et au partage des pratiques les plus efficaces.
Pourquoi certaines régions ont-elles une croissance plus rapide que d´autres qui ne se conforme pas toujours aux théories économiques ? Celles-ci sont des questions centrales dans le climat économique actuel où les décideurs cherchent des moyens pour stimuler une nouvelle croissance durable. L´analyse de l´OCDE suggère qu´il n´y a pas de modèle unique pour la politique régionale et donc les manières par lesquelles les régions se développent sont très variées. Pour assurer une croissance à long terme ce n´est pas suffisant de concentrer les ressources au bon endroit. S´appuyant sur des travaux récents de l´OCDE, notamment sur une analyse de données régionales, des examens des politiques et des études de cas, ce rapport soutient que ce sont à la fois la façon dont les investissements sont réalisés, les atouts régionaux utilisés et les synergies exploitées qui vont déterminer les différences entre régions. L´investissement public doit faire des priorités sur les impacts de la croissance de la productivité à plus long terme et associer les mesures de façon intégrée. Ceci souligne l´importance des régions et de la politique régionale dans la croissance économique et encourage une nouvelle approche des réformes économiques.
Illustrated with graphics and maps, the Atlas of Gender and Development gives readers a unique insight into the impact of social institutions - traditions, social norms and cultural practices - on gender equality in 124 non-OECD countries.
Gender inequality holds back not just women but the economic and social development of entire societies. Overcoming discrimination is important in the fight against poverty in developing countries and for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Tackling these inequalities is not easy: in many countries, discrimination against women is deeply rooted in social institutions such as the family and the law. These long-lasting codes of conduct, norms, traditions, and informal and formal laws determine gender outcomes in education, health, political representation and labour markets.
TheAtlas of Gender and Development is an indispensable tool for development practitioners, policy makers, academics and the wider public. It provides detailed country notes, maps and graphics describing the situation of women in 124 developing and transition countries using a new composite measure of gender inequality - the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) - developed by the OECD Development Centre.
In recent years, the Government of Egypt has driven major reforms for modernising the country. However, Egypt´s higher education system has remained largely unchanged and without fundamental reform of the sector the country will face difficulties in improving its competitiveness.
This independent review of Egypt´s higher education system focuses on areas in need of attention by policy makers and stakeholders, including system steering and institutional governance; student access to higher education; educational quality and effectiveness; research, development and innovation; and finance. It contains an analysis of the system and valuable recommendations which, taken together, represent a major programme of structural and cultural reform of Egyptian higher education over the decade to 2020.
The OECD Employment Outlook 2010 is OECD´s annual report on employment and labour markets in the OECD area and beyond. Opening with an editorial which analyses the immediate policy challenges and provides advice for OECD governments, and a first chapter that sets out the facts and figures related to recent employment developments and sets them in the broader economic context, this volume goes on to provide analysis in three specific policy areas: the jobs impact and policy response in emerging economies, institutional and policy determinants of labour market flows, and the quality of part-time work. The volume closes with a statistical annex which provides the latest available employment data. This book includes StatLinks, URLs under each graph and table linking to spreadsheets showing the underlying data.