Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research.
Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods employed, and offer an objective analysis of how the role of animals as spaceflight test subjects not only evolved, but subsequently changed over the years in response to a public outcry led by animal activists. It will explore the ways in which animal high-altitude and space flight research impacted on space flight biomedicine and technology, and how the results - both successful and disappointing - allowed human beings to then undertake that same hazardous journey with far greater understanding and confidence.
This book is intended as a detailed yet highly readable and balanced account of the history of animal space flights, and the resultant application of hard-won research to space technology and astrobiology. It will undoubtedly become the ultimate authority on animal space flights.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.
This eagerly awaited book offers a unique, comprehensive scientific study of the anatomy of the organ of female sexual pleasure. The authors use macroscopic and microscopic research to guide the reader from the glans, the visible part of the clitoris, where they explore the impressive sensory corpuscles, to the hidden roots of the bulbo-clitoral organ. They show its complexity, its exact location within the external genitalia and its intimate relationship with the urethro-vaginal pyramid.They also remind us that throughout history there has been a failure to understand this organ and explain that this misunderstanding remains the cause of persistent excisions, criminal mutilating practices that have not yet been eradicated.Using extensive iconography, they demonstrate throughout this book that the bulbo-clitoral organ is an exceptional natural treasure that every woman possesses and that every man should know well.
This timely book allows clinicians of the nervous system, who are increasingly confronted with degenerative and psychiatric diseases, to familiarize themselves with the cerebral amygdala and the anatomical structures involved in these pathologies. Its striking photos of cerebral sections and dissections should help MRI specialists to more precisely study the detailed images provided by their constantly evolving equipment.
Bimetallic nanoparticles, also called nanoalloys, are at the heart of nanoscience because of their ability to tune together composition and size for specific purposes. By approaching both their physical and chemical properties, Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties provides a comprehensive reference to this research field in nanoscience by addressing the subject from both experimental and theoretical points of view, providing chapters across three main topics:
Growth and structural properties
Thermodynamics and electronic structure of nanoalloys
Magnetic, optic and catalytic propertiesThe growth and elaboration processes which are the necessary and crucial part of any experimental approach are detailed in the first chapter. Three chapters are focused on the widely used characterization techniques sensitive to both the structural arrangements and chemistry of nanoalloys. The electronic structure of nanoalloys is described as a guide of useful concepts and theoretical tools. Chapters covering thermodynamics begin with bulk alloys, going to nanoalloys via surfaces in order to describe chemical order/disorder, segregation and phase transitions in reduced dimension. Finally, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties are discussed by focusing on nanoparticles formed with one element to track the modifications which occur when forming nanoalloys. The range and detail of Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties makes it an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers working in the field of nanoscience looking to expand and support their knowledge of nanoalloys.
Insects, pests and weeds are responsible for substantial loss of crops and reduced food supplies, poorer quality of agricultural products, economic hardship for growers and processor. Generally, chemical control methods are neither always economical nor are they effective and may have associated unwanted health, safety and environmental risks. Biological control involves use of beneficial biological agents to control pests and offers an environmental friendly approach to the effective management of plant diseases and weeds. The chapters are written by well recognized group leaders in the field. This book provides a comprehensive account of interaction of host and pests, and development of biological control agents for practical applications in crops management utilizing inherent defence mechanism, induced stimulation and biological control agents. The contents are divided into the following sections: General biology of plant defence, Use of natural compounds for biological control, Use of biological agents, Mechanism of action and Commercial aspects. The book will be useful for academicians, researcher and industries involved in study and manufacturing these products.
This book brings together a cutting edge international team of contributors to critically review the current knowledge regarding the effectiveness of training interventions designed to improve cognitive functions in different target populations. There is substantial evidence that cognitive and physical training can improve cognitive performance, but these benefits seem to vary as a function of the type and the intensity of interventions and the way training-induced gains are measured and analyzed. This book further fulfills the need for clarification of the mechanisms underlying cognitive and neural changes occurring after training.
This book offers a comprehensive overview of empirical findings and methodological approaches of cognitive training research in different cognitive domains (memory, executive functions, etc.), types of training (working memory training, video game training, physical training, etc.), age groups (from children to young and older adults), target populations (children with developmental disorders, aging workers, MCI patients etc.), settings (laboratory-based studies, applied studies in clinical and educational settings), and methodological approaches (behavioral studies, neuroscientific studies). Chapters feature theoretical models that describe the mechanisms underlying training-induced cognitive and neural changes.
Cognitive Training: An Overview of Features and Applications will be of interest to researchers, practitioners, students, and professors in the fields of psychology and neuroscience.
Adult ADHD: Diagnostic Assessment and Treatment, Third Edition covers not only diagnostic assessment, but also comorbidity patterns as well as differential diagnosis of ADHD with for example bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. The symptom overlap and misdiagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome in girls and women with the inattentive subtype of ADHD, ADD is explored. The chronic delayed sleep phase syndrome associated with ADHD based on disturbances in the circadian rhythm, and the possible consequences for general health (obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer) are discussed. There are sections on ADHD and intelligence, criminality, sexuality, dyslexia and autism. Adult ADHD can be treated effectively but as yet the disorder is not always recognised by professionals and this book aims to help correct this.Diagnostic tools are included, such as the structured Diagnostic Interview for Adult ADHD (DIVA), and an ultra-short and somewhat longer screening tool, all based on the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. Treatment options cover psychoeducation and motivation and individual and group coaching; long-acting stimulants and other new drugs for treating ADHD; use of melatonin to treat the delayed sleep-phase disorder. Useful information is included on the setting up and organisation of a department for adult ADHD with a multidisciplinary team. References, websites and useful international addresses have all been updated. Adult ADHD: Diagnostic Assessment and Treatment, Third Edition is intended for students, junior doctors/residents, psychologists, psychiatrists, other mental healthcare professionals and interested parties and provides a quick overview of the current state of the science and of the methods used in diagnosis and treatment.Adult ADHD: Diagnostic Assessment and Treatment, Third Edition was originally published by Pearson Assessment and Information BV, The Netherlands.
This interdisciplinary book brings philosophers and non-philosophers to the table to address questions of water ethics, specifically in terms of how moral questions inform decision making around water security at local, national, and international scales.Water security, which pertains to the experience of assured access to clean water, is a broad concept that intersects human rights, politics, economics, law, legislation, public health, trade, agriculture, and energy. Decisions made at each of these intersection points have ramifications for human well being, especially for the populations that are marginalized in a societal and political sense. In this book, the ethical dimensions of decision-making at those intersection points are explored, and real-world examples are used to tease out some key insights. It charts how ethical consideration can help shape a future in which everyone will be water secure.
The rapid thriving of industries, conversion of agricultural land to residential areas, habitat destruction, deforestation and use of recalcitrant synthetic substances enhanced the rate of degradation of the environment. Although there are various conventional techniques for degradation and cleaning of noxious pollutants from disturbed environs, they are energy inefficient and costly to install. Bioremediation has emerged recently as an alternative and novel approach to manage and control environmental pollutants. This volume focuses explicitly on the remediation of noxious substances in stressed environs. It includes expert-contributed chapters on bio-monitoring by way of evaluating the relationship of biota with the polluted/stressed environs, sustainable plant-based degradation of noxious pollutants, and the application of biotechnologies to achieve tailored responses.
Academicians, researchers, scientists and students will find this work essential for sustainable treatment of noxious pollutants. This book also serves as a core guide for training, teaching and research in conservation biology and environmental rehabilitation.
This book examines human conflict throughout history, the reasons behind the struggles, and why it persists. The volume delves into the causes of human conflict and what can be done about them. Based on detailed descriptions that support insightful interpretations, the book explores significant historical events in the course of human history.
By pursuing a "web of violence" approach, it raises and answers questions about the sources of conflict and how it may or may not be resolved through investigations into human agency and practice. It evaluates lessons learned concerning human conflict, violence, and warfare. To illustrate these lessons, the book presents a broad geographical and temporal set of data, including research on the time of Neanderthals in Europe (20-30 thousand years ago); the Late Neolithic civilization on the Mediterranean (6-8 thousand years ago); medieval Ireland; contemporary history of the Western Dani peoples of West Papua; and, finally, recent issues in Brazil, Congo, and Kenya.
This volume uses an innovative and interdisciplinary approach to assess various issues resulting from human-environment interactions in relation to sustainable development. The book encompasses theoretical and applied aspects, using both thematic and regional case studies from India, to highlight the impact of human-environment interactions at various spatio-temporal scales, with each study focusing on a particular anthropogenic issue, particularly in an Indian context. The book's three focal themes (e.g. habitat linkages, ekistics and social ecology, hazard and environmental management) elaborate the essential components of human-environment interactions with nature, its impact on the surrounding natural and social environments, and management techniques through research innovations. Readers will learn how maladjustments, disturbances and disasters are often inevitable byproducts of human-environment systems, and what conceptual and practical strategies can be applied towards sustainable coexistence. The book will be of interest to students, academics and policymakers engaged in environmental management, human-environment interactions and sustainable development.
This book aims to integrate, in a pedagogical and technical manner, with detailed derivations, all essential principles of fundamental theoretical physics as developed over the past 100 years. It covers:
Quantum physics and Stability Problems in the Quantum World, Minkowski Spacetime PhysicsParticle Classifications and Underlying Symmetries, Symmetry Violations, Quantum Field Theory of Particle Interactions, Higgs Field Physics, Supersymmetry: A Theory with Mathematical BeautySuperstrings, Gravity and Supergravity, General Relativity Predictions, including Frame Dragging, Intricacies of Black Hole Physics, Perturbative and Non-perturbative Quantum GravityIntricacies of Modern Cosmology, including Inflation and Power Spectrum If you are in the process of learning, or are lecturing on, any of the subjects above, then this is your book - irrespective of your specialty.
With over-specialization and no time to master all the fields given above, students, and perhaps many physicists, may find it difficult to keep up with all the exciting developments going on, and are even less familiar with their underlying technicalities: e.g. they might have heard that the Universe is 13.8 billion years old, but have no idea on how this number is actually computed.
This unique book will be of great value to graduate students, instructors and researchers interested in the intricacies and derivations of the many aspects of modern fundamental theoretical physics. And, although a graduate level book, some chapters may also be suitable for advanced undergraduates in their final year.
Pregnancy is a critical time for the health of the mother and the fetus, with important potential risks for both. Tools for antenatal diagnosis and pregnancy monitoring can support prevention and management of potential risks and complications. In particular, the perinatal period, spanning from the third trimester of pregnancy up to one month after birth, is the most critical for the baby. For this reason, in the last decades, biomedical engineering supported and fostered the scientific research towards the identification of new models, parameters, algorithms, and tools that can improve the quality of fetal monitoring, predict the outcomes and allow physicians to intervene in an appropriate manner to ensure a healthy future for the baby. This book follows the First International Summer School on Technologies and Signal Processing in Perinatal Medicine and reflects some of its most important master lectures. It represents a valuable guide for students and young researchers approaching this topic for the first time, as well as experienced researchers and practitioners looking for a clear representation of the themes and techniques presented by recognized experts in the field.
Presents current and innovative technologies for fetal and neonatal monitoring Emphasis on both technology/signal processing and clinical aspectsOffers a clear didactic approach to the subject matter
This book documents analyses of the Late Cretaceous dinosaur nesting sites of the Lameta Formation at Jabalpur, Districts Dhar and Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh; Districts Kheda and Panchmahal (Gujarat); and the Pisdura, Dongargaon and Pavna sectors in the Chandrapur Districts of Maharashtra, which are exposed in India along an east-west and central axis. In this work, special emphasis has been given to the dinosaur nesting sites of the east-central Narbada River region, including its regional geology. The work was undertaken to provide detailed information concerning dinosaur eggs, eggshell fragments, nests and clutches found in the Lameta Formation of peninsular India. Prior to the present work there had been no detailed review of systematic work on the taxonomy, and of micro- and ultrastructural studies of dinosaur eggs and eggshells from the Lameta Formation.
The study documents the field and laboratory investigations that facilitated the reconstruction of the morphotaxonomy, models for the burial pattern of eggs and eggshells, taphonomic implications,and the palaeoenvironmental context and palaeoecological conditions during the Late Cretaceous at the time of the extrusion of the Deccan traps, which may have been partly responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs. The need to follow a parataxonomic classification for Indian dinosaur eggs and eggshell types is very apparent, and this book addresses this aspect in some detail. The emphasis on the application of parataxonomic schemes is based on the description of new oospecies and their comparison with previously known forms. The present work has led to the recovery of numerous nests, many collapsed eggs and hundreds of dinosaur eggshell fragments from the localities situated near the east, west and central Narbada River regions. It will be of interest to academics and professional palaeontologists, and all students of dinosaurs.
This book describes the varying clinical manifestations of postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS) and provides a robust yet practical set of clinical tools for those managing patients suffering with this syndrome. Guidance is provided by a range of disciplines relevant to PoTS including general and specialist assessments, associated conditions, diagnostic considerations, therapy and service models. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: A Concise and Practical Guide to Management and Associated Conditions presents the scientific background and practical information for the busy medical professional, illustrating key features with care-based materials to help them manage this condition, which can be a challenge for patients and clinicians alike.
This volume aims to enhance the current understanding of clinical features, treatment and pathogenic aspects in necrotizing soft tissue infections. Various representative case studies are discussed to enhance the readers' understanding of these complex diseases. Necrotizing soft tissue infections are rapidly spreading infections that may cause extensive soft tissue or limb loss, multiorgan failure and are associated with a considerable fatality rate. It is undisputed that rapid diagnosis and prompt intervention is directly related to survival. The initial presentation may be limited to unspecific symptoms such as tenderness, swelling, erythema and pain. Thus, diagnosis and management are challenging due to heterogeneity in clinical presentation, in co-morbidities, in microbiological aetiology, as well as in the pathogenic mechanisms. An international and multidisciplinary consortium, INFECT, has for the last 6 years been pursuing research aimed to advance the understanding of the clinical and pathogenic aspects of these infections. A central part has been to create a comprehensive clinical registry and associated biobank which have also formed the basis for the experimental studies. Using the INFECT patient cohort, as well as an integrated systems biology approach in patients and clinically relevant experimental models, an advanced insight of diagnostic features, causative microbial agents, treatment strategies, and pathogenic mechanisms (host and bacterial disease traits and their underlying interaction network) has been obtained.
This book focuses on the potential benefits that the so-called smart technologies have been bringing to the urban reality and to the management and governance of the city, simultaneously highlighting the necessity for its responsible and ethically guided deployment, respecting essential humanistic values.
The urban ecosystem has been, in the last decades, the locus to where the most advanced forms of technological innovation converge, creating intelligent management platforms meant to produce models of energy, water consumption, mobility/transportation, waste management and efficient cities.
Due to the coincidence of the punctual overlap of its own genesis with the pandemics outbreak, the present book came to embody both the initial dream and desire of an intelligent city place of innovation, development and equity - a dream present in most of the chapters - and the fear not just of the pandemics per se, but of the consequences that this may have for the character of the intelligent city and for the nature of its relationship with its dwellers that, like a mother, it is supposed to nurture, shelter and protect.
Roughly one in every five patients referred to a neurologist suffers from headaches; the majority have migraines. Although headache specialists understand migraine on a clinical basis, the pathophysiological changes that provoke and accompany the development of a migraine attack continue to elude us.
Several decades have passed since the pioneering electroencephalographic study by Golla and Winter (1959), which underscored the role of abnormal rhythmic activities in migraine. Since then, there have been substantial advances in the field; a wealth of neurophysiological studies has enriched our understanding of the pathophysiological facets of the migraine pathology. Virtually every known technique of clinical electrophysiology has since been used to study the migraine brain and, more recently, new neurophysiological tools have been added to the arsenal. Nevertheless, applying the principles of peripheral and central neuromodulation offers a promising way to transfer the principles of synaptic plasticity to the patient's bedside.
This book belongs to the Headache Series endorsed by the European Headache Federation. Written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields, it covers all aspects of clinical neurophysiological methods that represent significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine. It will offer a valuable toolkit for beginners, and a reference guide for experts.
This book fills the gap between the increasing demand for epilepsy surgical experience and limited training facilities in this area. It comprehensively describes surgical techniques, including tricks and pitfalls, based on the author's 30 years of experience, providing optimal and effective training for young neurosurgeons by avoiding learning by trial and error. Moreover, it also includes useful information for epileptologists and other professionals involved in the epilepsy surgical program to allow them to gain a better understanding of possibilities and limitations of epilepsy surgery.
This book focuses on the fault diagnosis observer design for the switched system. Model-based fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control are one of the most popular research directions in recent decades. It contains eight chapters. Every chapter is independent in the method of observer design, but all chapters are around the same topic. Besides, in each chapter, the model description and theoretical results are firstly provided, then some practical application examples are illustrated to prove the obtained results. The advanced theoretical methodologies will benefit researchers or engineers in the area of safety engineering and the arrangement of the structure will help the readers to understand the content easily.
The purpose of this textbook is to enable a Neuroscientist to discuss the structure and functions of the brain at a level appropriate for students at many levels of study including undergraduate, graduate, dental or medical school level. It is truer in neurology than in any other system of medicine that a firm knowledge of basic science material, that is, the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nervous system, enables one to readily arrive at the diagnosis of where the disease process is located and to apply their knowledge at solving problems in clinical situations. The authors have a long experience in teaching neuroscience courses at the first or second year level to medical and dental students and to residents in which clinical information and clinical problem solving are integral to the course.