From materials to applications, this ready reference covers the entire value chain from fundamentals via processing right up to devices, presenting different approaches to large-area electronics, thus enabling readers to compare materials, properties and performance.
Divided into two parts, the first focuses on the materials used for the electronic functionality, covering organic and inorganic semiconductors, including vacuum and solution-processed metal-oxide semiconductors, nanomembranes and nanocrystals, as well as conductors and insulators. The second part reviews the devices and applications of large-area electronics, including flexible and ultra-high-resolution displays, light-emitting transistors, organic and inorganic photovoltaics, large-area imagers and sensors, non-volatile memories and radio-frequency identification tags.
With its academic and industrial viewpoints, this volume provides in-depth knowledge for experienced researchers while also serving as a first-stop resource for those entering the field.
This AGN textbook includes phenomena based on new results in the X-Ray domain from new telescopes such as Chandra and XMM Newton not mentioned in any other book. Furthermore, it considers also the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope with its revolutionary advances of unprecedented sensitivity, field of view and all-sky monitoring. Those and other new developments as well as simulations of AGN merging events and formations, enabled through latest super-computing capabilities. The book gives an overview on the current knowledge of the Active Galacitc Nuclei phenomenon. The spectral energy distribution will be discussed, pointing out what can be observed in different wavebands and with different physical models. Furthermore, the authors discuss the AGN with respect to its environment, host galaxy, feedback in galaxy clusters, etc. and finally the cosmological evolution of the AGN phenomenon.
This clear and self-contained review of the last four decades of research highlights in the hot field of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals, particularly of borate-based ultraviolet and deep-ultraviolet NLO crystals, covers three major subjects: the structure-property relationship in borate crystals, the structural and optical characteristics of various promising borate crystals, and their fruitful applications in a wide range of scientific and technological fields.
Edited by the discoverers and users of these optical borate crystals, this is a readily accessible reading for semiconductor, applied and solid state physicists, materials scientists, solid state chemists, manufacturers of optoelectronic devices, and those working in the optical industry.
The first systematic reference on the topic with an emphasis on the characteristics and dimension of the reinforcement. This first of three volumes, authored by leading researchers in the field from academia, government, industry, as well as private research institutions around the globe, focuses on macro and micro composites. Clearly divided into three sections, the first offers an introduction to polymer composites, discussing the state of the art, new challenges, and opportunities of various polymer composite systems, as well as preparation and manufacturing techniques. The second part looks at macro systems, with an emphasis on fiber reinforced polymer composites, textile composites, and polymer hybrid composites. Likewise, the final section deals with micro systems, including micro particle reinforced polymer composites, the synthesis, surface modification and characterization of micro particulate fillers and flakes as well as filled polymer micro composites, plus applications and the recovery, recycling and life cycle analysis of synthetic polymeric composites.
"Lasers" are active ingredients of our modern life, but they are inconspicuous as they often go unnoticed. This intuitive introductory guide will tell you all you want to know about laser technologies in very diverse fields from nuclear and particle physics to medicine, astronomy and ultra-precise metrology. The book is coherently focused on fundamentals, and is aimed to stimulate intuition about present and future applications, while unveiling the halo of myths around lasers. Written by reputable laser experts who think that science should be entertaining, this useful reference relies on simple analogies and illustrations rather than complex mathematics, and will be suitable for students and end-users of laser technologies, including novices.
Voted a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title 2012
Covering fundamental research as well as real-world applications, this first book on CMAs at an introductory level treats everything from atomistic details to surface processing. Comprehensive, self-contained chapters provide readers with the latest knowledge on the most salient features of the topic, selected in terms of their relevance to potential technological applications. Edited by one of the most distinguished authorities on quasicrystals and this most important of their subclasses, the contributions elucidate aspects of CMAs from a particular viewpoint: physical and chemical characteristics in the sub-nanometer regime, mesoscale phenomena, preparation and processing of thin films, and large-scale engineering properties. The whole is rounded off by a look at the commercial potential of CMA-based applications.
For PhD students and lecturers alike.
By focusing on general molecular mechanisms of antiviral drugs rather than therapies for individual viruses, this ready reference provides the critical knowledge needed to develop entirely novel therapeutics and to target new viruses.
It begins with a general discussion of antiviral strategies, followed by a broad survey of known viral targets, such as reverse transcriptases, proteases, neuraminidases, RNA polymerases, helicases and primases, as well as their known inhibitors. The final section contains several cases studies of recent successful antiviral drug development.
Edited by Erik de Clercq, the world authority on small molecule antiviral drugs, who has developed more new antivirals than anyone else.
The first comprehensive book focusing on synthesis and applications of macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives
Macrocyclic polyamines are a class of widely used important compounds. This is the first book that systematically summarizes the synthesis and applications of macrocyclic polyamines and their analogues, including the properties and synthetic methods of macrocyclic polyamines, chemical nucleases based on macrocyclic polyamines, the derivatives of macrocyclic polyamines as nano-vector materials, macrocyclic polyamines derivatives for bio-imaging, chemical sensors based on macrocyclic polyamines, and other applications of macrocyclic polyamines.
Macrocyclic Polyamines: Synthesis and Applications includes most of the studies involving macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives, and may be used as a reference for the researchers in related fields. It offers in-depth coverage of cyclization modes; special procedures for tetraza macrocyclic compounds; diacids-diamines condensation; oxidative DNA cleaving by macrocyclic polyamines; lipids with cationic MPA headgroups; the derivatives of DOTA, DO3A, and PCTA; receptors for anions; sensors for bioactive molecules; macrocyclic polyamines for solvent extraction and membrane transport of amino acids and their derivatives, electrophoretic separation, and open-tubular CEC; and much more.
?The first book that systematically summarizes the chemistry of macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives in terms of synthetic methods for their preparation, functionalization, and application in the main fields of chemical sensors, chemical nucleases, drug-delivery, bio-imaging and vector materials
?Provides a comprehensive reference for the researchers working on macrocyclic polyamines
?Offers train of thought in related research fields such as organic chemistry, coordination chemistry, analytical chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, biomaterials, etc.
Macrocyclic Polyamines: Synthesis and Applications will not only provide a reference for the researchers working on macrocyclic polyamines, but also offer opportunities for researchers in related research fields to understand the benefits of these key compounds.
The role of diffraction methods for the solid-state sciences has been pivotal to determining the (micro)structure of a material. Particularly,
the expanding activities in materials science have led to the development of new methods for analysis by diffraction. This book offers an authoritative overview of the new developments in the field of analysis of matter by (in particular X-ray, electron and neutron) diffraction. It is composed of chapters written by leading experts on 'modern diffraction methods'. The focus in the various chapters of this book is on the current forefront of research on and applications for diffraction methods. This unique book provides descriptions of the 'state of the art' and, at the same time, identifies avenues for future research.
The book assumes only a basic knowledge of solid-state physics and allows the application of the described methods by the readers of the
book (either graduate students or mature scientists).
The first handbook on this emerging field provides a comprehensive overview of transition metal-catalyzed coupling reactions in the presence of an oxidant. Following an introduction to the general concept and mechanism of this reaction class, the team of authors presents chapters on C-C cross-coupling reactions using organometallic partners, C-Heteroatom bond forming reactions via oxidative couplings, and C-H couplings via C-H activation. The text also covers such groundbreaking topics as recent achievements in the fields of C-C and C-X bond formation reactions as well as C-H activation involving oxidative couplings.
With its novel and concise approach towards important building blocks in organic chemistry and its focus on synthetic applications, this handbook is of great interest to all synthetic chemists in academia and industry alike.
This advanced textbook covers many fundamental, traditional and new branches of electrodynamics, as well as the related fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.
The book introduces the material at different levels, oriented towards 3rd-4th year bachelor, master, and PhD students. This is so as to describe the whole complexity of physical phenomena, instead of a mosaic of disconnected data. The required mathematical background is collated in Chapter 1, while the necessary physical background is included in the main text of the corresponding chapters and also given in appendices.
The content is based on teaching material tested on students over many years, and their training to apply general theory for solving scientific and engineering problems. To this aim, the book contains approximately 800 examples and problems, many of which are described in detail. Some of these problems are designed for students to work on their own with only the answers and descriptions of results, and may be solved selectively. The examples are key ingredients to the theoretical course; the user should study all of them while reading the corresponding chapters.
Equally suitable as a reference for researchers specialized in science and engineering.
The past decade has seen the reappearance of natural products as a valuable source of potent therapeutics. Here, experts on bioactive natural products cover the full spectrum of clinically relevant enzymes that are known to be targeted by natural products. Key enzymes include acetylcholine esterase, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, cyclooxygenase, dihydrofolate reductase, phospholipase A2, respiratory complexes, and many more.
By connecting the diversity of medicinal natural product sources with their potential clinical applications, this volume serves as a companion for the medicinal chemist looking for innovative small molecule compounds as well as for pharmacologist interested in the clinical effects and mode of action of herbal and traditional medicines.
Now in its second edition, this continues to serve as an ideal textbook for introductory courses on materials characterization, based on the author's experience in teaching advanced undergraduate and postgraduate university students.
The new edition retains the successful didactical concept of introductions at the beginning of chapters, exercise questions and an online solution manual. In addition, all the sections have been thoroughly revised, updated and expanded, with two major new topics (electron backscattering diffraction and environmental scanning electron microscopy), as well as fifty additional questions - in total about 20% new content.
The first part covers commonly used methods for microstructure analysis, including light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, as well as scanning probe microscopy. The second part of the book is concerned with techniques for chemical analysis and introduces X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, fluorescence X-ray spectroscopy and such popular surface analysis techniques as photoelectron and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. This section concludes with the two most important vibrational spectroscopies (infra-red and Raman) and the increasingly important thermal analysis.
The theoretical concepts are discussed with a minimal involvement of mathematics and physics, and the technical aspects are presented with the actual measurement practice in mind. Making for an easy-to-read text, the book never loses sight of its intended audience.
With its comprehensive coverage, this reference introduces readers to the wide topic of resistance switching, providing the knowledge, tools, and methods needed to understand, characterize and apply resistive switching memories.
Starting with those materials that display resistive switching behavior, the book explains the basics of resistive switching as well as switching mechanisms and models. An in-depth discussion of memory reliability is followed by chapters on memory cell structures and architectures, while a section on logic gates rounds off the text.
An invaluable self-contained book for materials scientists, electrical engineers and physicists dealing with memory research and development.
Providing the scientific background on the risk and safety assessment of toxicity in phytochemicals in everyday food, this monograph contains the pros and cons of 20 testing methods, with comments by the internationally acknowledged and independent DFG Senate Commission on Food Safety.
Supplemented by 40 poster contributions on phytochemicals and their effects.
Providing much-needed information on fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy, this ready reference covers detection techniques, data registration, and the use of spectroscopic tools, as well as new techniques for improving the resolution of optical microscopy below the resolution gap.
Starting with the basic principles, the book goes on to treat fluorophores and labeling, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and enzymatics, as well as excited state energy transfer, and super-resolution fluorescence imaging.
Examples show how each technique can help in obtaining detailed and refined information from individual molecular systems.
A systematic outline of the basic theory of oscillations, combining several tools in a single textbook. The author explains fundamental ideas and methods, while equally aiming to teach students the techniques of solving specific (practical) or more complex problems.
Following an introduction to fundamental notions and concepts of modern nonlinear dynamics, the text goes on to set out the basics of stability theory, as well as bifurcation theory in one and two-dimensional cases. Foundations of asymptotic methods and the theory of relaxation oscillations are presented, with much attention paid to a method of mappings and its applications.
With each chapter including exercises and solutions, including computer problems, this book can be used in courses on oscillation theory for physics and engineering students. It also serves as a good reference for students and scientists in computational neuroscience.
Written by an experienced editor widely acclaimed within the scientific community, this book covers everything from oxygen to nitrogen functionalities.
From the contents:
* Palladium-Catalyzed Syntheses of Five-Membered Saturated Heterocycles
* The Formation of Carbon-Sulfur and Carbon-Selenium Bonds by Substitution and Addition Reactions Catalyzed by Transition Metal Complexes
* Palladium-Catalysis for Oxidative 1,2-Difunctionalization of Alkenes
* Palladium-Catalyzed Formation of Aromatic Heterocycles
* Rhodium-Catalyzed Amination of C-H-Bonds
* Transition Metal-Catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles
* Copper-Catalyzed Synthesis of Azoles
* Palladium(II)-Catalyzed C-N Bond Formation Involving Aminopalladation of Aklenes
* Carbon-Heteroatom Bond Formation by Rh(I)-Catalyzed Ring-Opening Reactions
* Recent Advances in Homogeneous Gold Catalysis: Formation of Carbon-Heteroatom Bonds
The result is an indispensable source of information for the strategic planning of the synthetic routes for organic, catalytic and medicinal chemists, as well as chemists in industry.
Edited by the leaders in the fi eld, with chapters from highly renowned international researchers, this is the fi rst coherent overview of the latest in silicon nanomembrane research.
As such, it focuses on the fundamental and applied aspects of silicon nanomembranes, ranging from synthesis and manipulation to manufacturing, device integration and system level applications, including uses in bio-integrated electronics, three-dimensional integrated photonics, solar cells, and transient electronics.
The first part describes in detail the fundamental physics and materials science involved, as well as synthetic approaches and assembly and manufacturing strategies, while the second covers the wide range of device applications and system level demonstrators already achieved, with examples taken from electronics and photonics and from biomedicine and energy.
Authored by one of the world's leading experts in the chemistry of lighter noble gases, this comprehensive monograph fills the need for an up-to-date review of the diverse experimental techniques and theoretical methods currently in practice.
After reviewing the experiments breaking the paradigm of "non-reactive" noble gases, the physico-chemical background is introduced. Besides the emphasis on gas phase reactions, the author presents other relevant systems, such as chemistry in the bulk phase, under high pressure, and cold matrices. The discussion of gas-phase chemistry of the noble gases covers neutral and ionic compounds, diatomic molecules, complexes with small molecules and metal compounds, up to large clusters.
This much needed, comprehensive and modern reference on display technology, illumination sources and color imaging focuses on visual effects and how reproduced images are best matched to human visual features.
As such, it teaches readers how to exploit the knowledge of human color information processing to design usable, ergonomic, and pleasing displays or visual environments. The contents describe design principles and methods to optimize self-luminous visual technologies for the human user, including modern still and motion image displays, and indoor light sources. Design principles and methods are derived from the knowledge of the human visual system, with a special emphasis on color vision, color cognition, color harmony, color preference and visually evoked emotions. The expert authors include the most important and latest applications of the design principles and methods, forming a comprehensive view of human color information processing from the receptors through the retina via high-level visual perception right up to the level of cognition, preference, harmony, as well as visually evoked emotions.
This book is included in the Wiley SID Series.
Starting from the basic principles of wetting, electrowetting and fluid dynamics all the way up to those engineering aspects relevant for the development of specific devices, this is a comprehensive introduction and overview of the theoretical and practical aspects.
Written by two of the most knowledgeable experts in the field, the text covers both current as well as possible future applications, providing basic working principles of lab-on-a-chip devices and such optofluidic devices as adaptive lenses and optical switches. Furthermore, novel e-paper display technology, energy harvesting and supercapacitors as well as electrowetting in the nano-world are discussed. Finally, the book contains a series of exercises and questions for use in courses on microfluidics or electrowetting.
With its all-encompassing scope, this book will equally serve the growing community of students and academic and industrial researchers as both an introduction and a standard reference.
Although ceramics have been known to mankind literally for millennia, research has never ceased. Apart from the classic uses as a bulk
material in pottery, construction, and decoration, the latter half of the twentieth century saw an explosive growth of application fields, such as
electrical and thermal insulators, wear-resistant bearings, surface coatings, lightweight armour, and aerospace materials. In addition to plain,
hard solids, modern ceramics come in many new guises such as fabrics, ultrathin films, microstructures and hybrid composites.
Built on the solid foundations laid down by the 20-volume series Materials Science and Technology, Ceramics Science and Technology picks
out this exciting material class and illuminates it from all sides. Materials scientists, engineers, chemists, biochemists, physicists and
medical researchers alike will fi nd this work a treasure trove for a wide range of ceramics knowledge from theory and fundamentals to practical approaches and problem solutions.
Provides comprehensive coverage of laser-induced ionization processes for mass spectrometry analysis
Drawing on the expertise of the leading academic and industrial research groups involved in the development of photoionization methods for mass spectrometry, this reference for analytical scientists covers both the theory and current applications of photo-induced ionization processes. It places widely used techniques such as MALDI side by side with more specialist approaches such as REMPI and RIMS, and discusses leading edge developments in ultrashort laser pulse desorption, to give readers a complete picture of the state of the technology.
Photoionization and Photo-Induced Processes in Mass Spectrometry: Fundamentals and Applications starts with a complete overview of the fundamentals of the technique, covering the basics of the gas phase ionization as well as those of laser desorption and ablation, pulse photoionization, and single particle ionization. Numerous application examples from different analytical fields are described that showcase the power and the wide scope of photo ionization in mass spectrometry.
-The first general reference book on photoionization techniques for mass spectrometry
-Examines technologies and applications of gas phase resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI-MS) and gas phase resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS)
-Provides complete coverage of popular techniques like MALDI
-Discusses the current and potential applications of each technology, focusing on process and environmental analysis
Photoionization and Photo-Induced Processes in Mass Spectrometry: Fundamentals and Applications is an excellent book for spectroscopists, analytical chemists, photochemists, physical chemists, and laser specialists.