TU Delft

  • This issue of A+BE addresses two critical urban issues China faces today: housing and urban renewal. In the recent two decades, the Chinese urban housing stock underwent a significant, if not extreme, transformation. From 1949 to 1998, the urban housing stock in China largely depended on the public sector, and a large amount of public housing areas were developed under the socialistic public housing system in Beijing and other Chinese cities. Yet in 1998, a radical housing reform stopped this housing system. Thus, most of the public housing stock was privatized and the urban housing provision was conferred to the market.
    The radical housing privatization and marketization did not really resolve but intensified the housing problem. Along with the high-speed urbanization, the alienated, capitalized and speculative housing stock caused a series of social and spatial problems. The Chinese government therefore attempted to reestablish the social housing system in 2007. However, the unbalanced structure of the Chinese urban housing stock has not been considerably optimized and the housing problem is still one of the most critical challenges in China.

  • Smart Energy Management for Households infers design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS) through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness.
    Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA) on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS.
    The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS.
    Nonetheless, the LCA cal culations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account.

  • Deze studie behandelt de voortdurende strijd tussen belangengroepen over hoe de stad Den Haag eruit dient te zien in de periode 1860 tot 2010. De these in dit onderzoek luidt dat het gefragmenteerde beeld dat mensen van de stad ervaren het gevolg is van de grote verscheidenheid aan stedelijk ensembles en publieke gebouwen die vaak met de beste intenties door groepen betrokkenen successievelijk werden gepresenteerd, al dan niet half voltooid en tegen elkaar geschoven. Deze betrokkenen, zoals nationale en lokale politici, de koninklijke familie, banken, industriëlen, woningbouwcorporaties, projectontwikkelaars, architecten en stedenbouwers en organisaties met kritische burgers zijn voortdurend in conflict over hoe publieke gebouwen of beeldbepalende stedelijk ensembles er uit dienen te zien. Elke groep wil met de beste bedoelingen op zijn eigen manier de stad vormgeven. Het lijkt wel alsof de stad is ontdaan van ruimte, beweging en tijd, en dat alleen het stadsbeeld nog telt dat eindeloos wordt gereproduceerd in de media om de opinie te beïnvloeden. Op de achtergrond speelt altijd het stadsbeeld dat men wil bewerkstelligen. Het getouwtrek om het Spuiforum is slechts het meest recente in een lange reeks incidenten in Den Haag. Het hardvochtig streven van betrokkenen naar het ene zuivere stadsbeeld levert alleen maar meer beeldfragmenten op, en misschien is dat wel de grootste kwaliteit van de stad.

  • n the past three decades, numerous high-tech city-regions have emerged with the rise of new high-tech industries across the world. Many of them have been specifically supported by national technology policies-in developed or developing countries-implemented to trigger economic growth and to enhance global competitiveness at the national and/or city-regional level. These policies have involved the development of high-tech spaces-including research science/technology parks, innovation centres, science cities, high-tech city-regions, and so on-albeit in different ways.

    This issue of A+BE applies a comparative approach to explore the major factors that shape the practices of spatial planning in hightech development. The Eindhoven city-region in the Netherlands and the Hsinchu city-region in Taiwan are selected as case study areas. Both city-regions can be recognised as success stories of high-tech development not only on a national scale but also on a global scale, despite the fact that they apply different approaches.

  • This year's fifth issue of A+BE outlines the relevance of the building substance as factor for the overall sustainable performance of the built environment. It wants to sensibilize the designer for the ecological dimension of planning decisions and to show how to optimize them. Design and construction of buildings include harvesting resources and producing emissions and stating a burden to nature. This can be perceived equivalent to a financial investment where the monetary value has to express adequately the real one. The planning decision has an ecological value which must justify its relevance by function and has to be optimized within its scope. Environmental impact and desired building quality must be alanced in order to establish a sustainable solution. All means to optimize need to be evaluated. In order to do so the designer needs to be aware of his impact and has to strategically invest embodied energy during the architectural planning process.


  • Amsterwarm biedt met de ontwikkeling van een gebiedstypologie inzicht in het stedelijk warmte-eiland effect in de stad Amsterdam.

    De typologie maakt duidelijk in hoeverre de stad Amsterdam zelf bijdraagt aan het stedelijk warmte-eiland effect, in hoeverre buurten en woningen hun bewoners blootstellen aan het warmte-eiland effect, en in hoeverre de bewoners van de stad kwetsbaar zijn voor de gevolgen ervan.
    De typologie is gebaseerd op het ruimtegebruik fysieke kenmerken van Amsterdam, op de leefbaarheid en de woningkwaliteit, en op de samenstelling van de bevolking in de verschillende delen van de stad.
    De typologie geeft concrete handreikingen voor het soort actie die de stad Amsterdam kan ondernemen met oog op het welzijn en het comfort van haar bevolking, en met oog op het beperken van het energiegebruik om gebouwen te koelen tijdens warm weer.
    De gebiedstypologie maakt het mogelijk om uitspraken te doen over specifieke maatregelen/prioriteiten voor verschillende delen van de stad Amsterdam.
    Amsterwarm verkent tevens hoe sterk het warmte-eiland Amsterdam is.

  • Dit proefschrift gaat over gebiedsgericht voorraadbeleid van woningcorporaties. In dit proefschrift is te lezen hoe woningcorporaties komen tot samenhangende voornemens ten aanzien van de woningvoorraad in wijken en buurten en welke planningsbenaderingen ze hierbij gebruiken.
    Woningcorporaties hebben zich sinds hun verzelfstandiging in de jaren negentig van de vorige eeuw ontwikkeld tot maatschappelijke ondernemingen die zich inzetten op een breed werkterrein. Deze verandering zorgt voor een toegenomen complexiteit van de besluitvorming over de woningvoorraad van de corporaties. Het voorraadbeleid van woningcorporaties is veranderd van een beleid dat vooral gericht is op de fysieke pijler (woningen), op de primaire doelgroep en op de eigen portefeuille, naar een gebiedsgericht (voorraad)beleid dat zich kenmerkt door de samenwerking met andere partijen, de verbreding naar sociale en economische activiteiten en een (beleids)onderscheid tussen verschillende gebieden. De traditionele modellen voor strategisch voorraadbeleid zijn vaak niet aangepast aan deze ontwikkeling. Deze modellen houden onvoldoende rekening met gebiedskenmerken, waardoor de voorgestelde maatregelen niet vanzelfsprekend aansluiten op de gebiedsspecifieke problemen. Daarnaast is het beleid lastig uit te voeren, omdat de topdown-benadering van de modellen de werkelijkheid veronachtzaamt waarin meerdere, wederzijds afhankelijke actoren nodig zijn om beleid ten aanzien van de woningvoorraad te laten slagen.
    In dit proefschrift is daarom onderzocht welke planningsbenaderingen woningcorporaties hanteren bij het formuleren van gebiedsgericht voorraadbeleid in Vogelaarwijken.


  • Integral Facade Construction focuses on the future development of the curtain wall. While the requirements on facades have slowly increased over the last decades, the curtain wall has evolved from craftsmanship oriented constructions to highly developed facade systems. But its constructional principle is still the same. Simplified, it can be described as a two-dimensional stick system with infill. With the latest requirements of almost energy neutral buildings, faster building processes and increasing technicalisation of the building envelope this constructional principle is reaching its limits. The curtain wall system has reached a state of maturity; and it needs a new approach to guaranty that this successful product will meet the challenges of the future.

  • In dit proefschrift staan klantgestuurd voorraadbeleid van woningcorporaties en de empowermenteffecten voor bewoners centraal. De centrale probleemstelling omvat wat klantgestuurd voorraadbeleid is (definitie), welke vormen van klantgestuurd voorraadbeleid zijn te onderscheiden (categorisatie), wat de beoogde effecten zijn en tot welke effecten het zou leiden, is beantwoord aan de hand van zeven deelvragen. De focus van het onderzoek verschuift van een verkenning van alle initiatieven in het klantgestuurd voorraadbeleid naar de empowermenteffecten voor bewoners van Te Woon als één van de klantgestuurde initiatieven.


  • "International Facades - CROFT" links the fields of architecture, building services and building physics. It aims at an international diversity in façade design to reduce energy consumption in building design.

    Current architectural planning practices, such as the International Style, perceive the climate often as a problem, rather than an opportunity to work with it.
    This doctoral thesis presents a "Facade Expert Tool" (FET) that analyses the climate and the combination of the façade and building services. The goal of FET is to easily analyse the climate of a particular location and to then limit the possible combination of façade and building services components to a practical level.
    Through FET Marcel Bilow has developed "Climate Responsive Optimised Facade Technologies" (CROFT).
    CROFT demonstrates the potential for sustainable building operation through the use new technologies that respond to the requirements posed on façades in climate zones as divers as those found in Moscow, Singapore, Berlin and Dubai.

  • AM Envelope

    Tu Delft Holger Strauss

    • Tu delft
    • 29 Janvier 2013


    This book shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM) for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today's demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions.

    The term `AM Envelope' (Additive Manufacturing Envelope) describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope.
    AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades `just in time'. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on `tool-less' production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation.
    The basic principle of AM opens a fascinating new world of engineering, no matter what applications can be found: to `design for function' rather to `design for production' turns our way of engineering of the last century upside down. A collection of AM applications therefore offers the outlook to our (built) future in combination with the acquired knowledge.

  • Heritage-based design concerns the relationship between design approaches and the cultural heritage essence of a monument. How to approach a design? How to get a grip on a site? How can a designer incorporate existing qualities of the heritage in the design? Chapter 1 describes the trends in the Netherlands, a development which has led to heritage policy becoming increasingly linked to spatial planning and development issues, and resulting in the fast growing importance of design for heritage. Chapter 2 focuses on the cultural heritage value - and in particular on the question of how a designer can achieve a translation of the cultural heritage essence of a site into concrete design principles. Chapter 3 shows how a designer can take a position by relating to the cultural heritage value and by subsequently reinterpreting this in his own way.

  • Flowscapes explores concepts, methods and techniques for design-related research on landscape infrastructures. Their main objective is to engage environmental and societal issues by means of integrative and design oriented approaches. Through focusing on interdisciplinary design-related research of landscape infrastructures they provide important clues for the development of spatial armatures that can guide urban and rural development and have cultural and civic significance. The geographical context of the papers covers Europe, Africa, Asia and Northern America.

  • Between 1970 and 1990 the prewar districts of Dutch cities underwent an unparalleled process of renewal. What began as `building for the neighbourhood' in protest against extensive demolition has now come to be known as `city renewal'. Large numbers of affordable dwellings and social facilities were created. However, businesses often disappeared, the quality of public space did not always improve and districts sometimes became isolated from the rest of the city. Since 1990 some of the old city renewal districts have taken off again and become popular (and expensive) housing districts. But others still have problems despite the renewal.
    The design studies in this book show how economic activity, infrastructure and public space can be the keys to new strategies for improving city districts. Four `problem districts' have been chosen as testing grounds: Leiden's Havenkwartier, The Hague's Schilderswijk, Rotterdam's Feijenoord and Amsterdam's Indische Buurt. Three essays describe the history of city renewal, the future of urban renewal and the role of spatial design in changing the existing city. The book ends with a call for meaningful new roles and instruments for architects and urban designers at a time when large-scale urban development has come to a standstill.
    Between 1970 and 1990 the prewar districts of Dutch cities underwent an unparalleled process of renewal. What began as `building for the neighbourhood' in protest against extensive demolition has now come to be known as `city renewal'. Large numbers of affordable dwellings and social facilities were created. However, businesses often disappeared, the quality of public space did not always improve and districts sometimes became isolated from the rest of the city. Since 1990 some of the old city renewal districts have taken off again and become popular (and expensive) housing districts. But others still have problems despite the renewal.
    The design studies in this book show how economic activity, infrastructure and public space can be the keys to new strategies for improving city districts. Four `problem districts' have been chosen as testing grounds: Leiden's Havenkwartier, The Hague's Schilderswijk, Rotterdam's Feijenoord and Amsterdam's Indische Buurt.
    Three essays describe the history of city renewal, the future of urban renewal and the role of spatial design in changing the existing city. The book ends with a call for meaningful new roles and instruments for architects and urban designers at a time when large-scale urban development has come to a standstill.

  • This volume of A+BE examines the current extent of knowledge sharing between actors who form design teams of Large Complex Building Projects (LCBPs), the problems that limited knowledge sharing causes in such projects. As part of this analysis I compare deliberately designed and emerging project-specific Knowledge Sharing Strategies (KSS). Based on this analysis, it proposes an approach how to promote knowledge sharing in future LCBPs.
    Understanding the current knowledge sharing processes employed by actors in large complex building projects forms therefore the core of this study. Hence, the dynamics that both hinder and promote actors' knowledge sharing processes within LCBPs are investigated. Before making this investigation, the natures of LCBPs are elaborated since these projects are `the playgrounds' of the design team actors for knowledge sharing.
    The study makes three contributions:
    an understanding of the nature of LCBPs (as the playground of actors) that serves as a basis for exploring potential barriers and current approaches towards knowledge sharing among design team actors;
    the formation of an analytical framework that synthesizes aspects for knowledge sharing strategies and investigates the current strategies that are targeted at building knowledge sharing between actors which has been undertaken in regard to the proposed framework of KSS;
    the practical implications that provide knowledge for practitioners so they can design and implement knowledge sharing strategies for LCBPs.

  • Using engineering performance evaluations to explore design alternatives during the conceptual phase of architectural design helps to understand the relationships between form and performance; and is crucial for developing well-performing final designs. Computer aided conceptual design has the potential to aid the design team in discovering and highlighting these relationships; especially by means of procedural and parametric geometry to support the generation of geometric design, and building performance simulation tools to support performance assessments. However, current tools and methods for computer aided conceptual design in architecture do not explicitly reveal nor allow for backtracking the relationships between performance and geometry of the design. They currently support post-engineering, rather than the early design decisions and the design exploration process.
    Focusing on large roofs, this research aims at developing a computational design approach to support designers in performance driven explorations. The approach is meant to facilitate the multidisciplinary integration and the learning process of the designer; and not to constrain the process in precompiled procedures or in hard engineering formulations, nor to automatize it by delegating the design creativity to computational procedures. PAS (Performance Assessment Strategies) as a method is the main output of the research. It consists of a framework including guidelines and an extensible library of procedures for parametric modelling. It is structured on three parts.
    Pre-PAS provides guidelines for a design strategy-definition, toward the parameterization process. Model-PAS provides guidelines, procedures and scripts for building the parametric models. Explore-PAS supports the solutions-assessment based on numeric evaluations and performance simulations, until the identification of a suitable design solution. PAS has been developed based on action research. Several case studies have focused on each step of PAS and on their interrelationships.
    The relations between the knowledge available in pre-PAS and the challenges of the solution space exploration in explore-PAS have been highlighted. In order to facilitate the explore-PAS phase in case of large solution spaces, the support of genetic algorithms has been investigated and the exiting method ParaGen has been further implemented. Final case studies have focused on the potentials of ParaGen to identify well performing solutions; to extract knowledge during explore-PAS; and to allow interventions of the designer as an alternative to generations driven solely by coded criteria.
    Both the use of PAS and its recommended future developments are addressed in the thesis.


  • Woningcorporaties en vastgoedontwikkeling, dat is een logische combinatie. Tenminste, het lijkt een logische combinatie. Woningcorporaties worden niet voor niets nog steeds vaak woningbouwverenigingen genoemd. Vastgoedontwikkeling is altijd één van de activiteiten geweest waar woningcorporaties mee bezig zijn geweest: woningen ontwikkelen voor een specifieke doelgroep, woningen renoveren en sinds de jaren `90 ook het investeren in ander vastgoed dan alleen woningen. Het is een dynamisch werkveld, de institutionele context van en rondom corporaties verandert continu en de markt is altijd in beweging.

    Woningcorporaties reageerden en reageren verschillend als deze bewegingen worden vertaald naar de activiteiten en hun manier van handelen in vastgoedontwikkeling. De aard en omvang van vastgoedontwikkeling is vanuit de context voor een groot deel te analyseren en te verklaren. Er is evenwel weinig inzicht in de manier waarop corporaties de opgave uitvoeren, terwijl de manieren die wel zichtbaar zijn sterk per corporatie verschillen. Dit roept verschillende vragen op:
    Waarom heeft de ene corporatie alles `in huis' georganiseerd en legt de andere corporatie alle verantwoordelijkheid voor ontwikkeling in handen van een derde?
    Waarom heeft de ene organisatie een aparte afdeling projectontwikkeling en de ander een team vastgoedontwikkeling binnen de afdeling vastgoed?
    Waarom verandert de manier van organiseren van projectontwikkeling binnen corporaties continu en ook nog eens in verschillende richtingen bij verschillende corporaties?
    Is het niet logischer dat woningcorporaties, met een op hoofdlijnen gezamenlijke doelstelling, inmiddels een goede manier van werken hebben ervaren en zich meer eenduidig volgens deze manier zouden kunnen organiseren?
    Dit issue van A+BE gaat in op de antwoorden van deze vraagstukken. Het vakgebied vastgoedontwikkeling voor woningcorporaties moet hiervoor in beeld gebracht worden.
    Wat gebeurt er nu daadwerkelijk in de dagelijkse praktijk? Waar treden problemen in - de organisatie van - vastgoedontwikkeling door corporaties op? Zijn woningcorporaties op dit moment wel `fit for use' om vastgoedontwikkeling uit te voeren?

  • Nowadays, organisations must cope with the pressure of cost reduction and efficiency in order to succeed in a highly competitive business environment. However, drivers to improve social interaction and employee's performance and as such to contribute to organisational goals and objectives make it necessary to be concerned with other performance criteria as well, such as effectiveness, flexibility, employee satisfaction, productivity and creativity. There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. Performance measurement methods which include an integrated perspective of performance have become essential. In addition, it has been realised that corporate real estate can contribute to organisational performance (Nourse and Roulac, 1993, De Vries et al., 2008, Lindholm, 2008, Den Heijer, 2011, Jensen et al., 2012). For this reason, worldwide organisations started to implement new ways of working in a more open and flexible work environment. Although there are various objectives and drivers of workplace change, the common objectives are to reduce costs and to increase efficiency. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the increasing demand for talented knowledge workers and changing work patterns, have led to the development of new offices that can promote social networks and interaction among employees. The new workplace does not only aim at achieving cost efficiency, but it should also support employee satisfaction and productivity.
    This PhD research focuses on both themes i.e. performance measurement of workplace change. The aim of this research is to provide a conceptual framework that visualises the impact of workplace change on employees' responses to the new work environment and to present guidelines on performance measurement of workplace change in different contexts. Two organisations in Thailand and one organisation in The Netherlands were selected to serve as case studies. The impact of culture was explored as a contextual background.


  • The aim of this thesis is to provide an outline to address questions with regard to the transformation of planning in China that has occurred after the 1980s. The research is using "planning evolution" as the main research skeleton. The starting point is to investigate to what extent Chinese urban planning has developed after the opening up and other reforms under the state-led and market-driven modes of Chinese reformation, and to investigate how the different modes and various actors have influenced urban planning, based on the investigation of the respective political and economic changes within the initial reformation in general, and planning in particular.


  • Courtyards have been used for thousands of years in different climates in the world. In hot climates they provide shading, in humid climates they cause a stack effect helping ventilation, in cold climates they break cold winds and protect their microclimate. In temperate climates (such as of the Netherlands), the thermal behaviour of courtyards has been studied less. In this dissertation, low-rise residential courtyard buildings were therefore studied among (and along) different urban block types in the Netherlands.


  • Shanghai, like the other big cities along China's coastline, has witnessed extraordinary growth in its economy and population with industrial development and rural-to-urban migration generating extensive urban expansion. Shanghai's GDP growth rate has been over 10 per cent for more than 15 years. Its population in 2013 was estimated at 23.47 million, which is double its size in 1979. The urban area enlarged by four times from 644 to 2,860 km2 between 1977 and 2010. Such demanding growth and dramatic changes present big challenges for urban planning practice in Shanghai. Plans have not kept up with development and the mismatch between the proposals in plans and the actual spatial development has gradually increased, reaching a critical level since 2000. This issue of A+BE asks to what extent have spatial plans influenced the actual spatial development in the peri-urban areas of Shanghai by paying particular attention to the role of the Shanghai Master Plan 1999-2020 (Plan 1999).


  • This book argues that the floods following extreme precipitation result not only from very heavy rainfall but also from the significant impact of human activities on natural water systems. While most literature emphasises that the increasing magnitude of storm rainfall extends beyond the original protection standards of hydrologic facilities in highly populated delta cities. Based on the knowledge of urban morphology, this study analyses how human systems have affected the transformation of natural water processes in the Kaoping River Delta. The relationship between human environments and natural landscape is illustrated via a 3-layer analytical framework which consists of a natural landscape layer, an infrastructure layer and an occupation layer. This layer-based approach views landscapes as a whole system in which each element interacts with the others.

  • Rapid and deep changes in society, the economy and policy over the last decadesare having an increasing impact on the delivery of social housing in North Western Europe. These changes are transforming the way in which social housing providers perform their task and are reshaping their relationships with the State, communities and with other market actors. The combination of continued State withdrawal from service provision, the deep and persistent effects of the global financial crisis that begun in 2008 and profound changes in the type of demand for social housing across North Western Europe call for a reflection on the implications of these phenomenafor social housing providers. Several studies indicate that social housing providers in Europe have begun to adopt new (social) entrepreneurial strategies and are becoming more innovative as a response to these challenges. These strategies imply tackling the tensions between (at times) conflicting drivers, notably those arising from the State, the market and communities. However, research in this topic so far is fragmented, focussing on one country or on specific sub-areas such as asset management and non-housing activities and rarely connects with the relevant wider literature on the third sector and social enterprise.
    Within this context, this PhD research has sought to widen this discussion by providing new insights through a comparative study of the ways in which individual social housing providers are relating to (i.e. responding to and influencing) these contextual changes. More specifically, the research sought to better understand the complex process of decision-making these companies undergo to manage their responses to competing drivers. Companies operating in two countries (England and The Netherlands) were studied in-depth. In both countries, the social rental sector has played a prominent role in their respective welfare states for decades. While both are amongst countries with the highest share of social rental housing in Europe, each represents a different type of welfare state and of social housing provision - following Kemeny's classification, a unitary system (the Netherlands) and a dualist system (England).


  • In this thesis, the ideas and concepts of Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) are examined in terms of the contribution they could make to the process of accommodation decision by using recent cases in Dutch hospitals. CREM can be defined as the management of the real estate portfolio of a corporation by aligning the portfolio and services with the needs of the core business in order to obtain maximum added value for the business and an optimal contribution to the overall performance of the organisation. This definition assumes that accommodation can add value to the organisation and contribute to its overall achievement. Elaborating on the added value of real estate in addition to quantifying these added values and making them applicable to hospital real estate management is therefore central to this study.

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