This book provides a fascinating insight into the life and scientific work of Laura Bassi, the first female member of the influential Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna and also the first woman to be appointed a university professor in physics, or universal philosophy as it was then termed. The book describes Laura Bassi's research activities and achievements, explaining the influence of Newton, her role in promoting Newtonian experimental physics in Bologna, and her work as an experimentalist, including on electricity. Much attention is paid to the context in which Bassi developed her career. The very considerable difficulties faced by a woman surrounded by male university teachers and members of the Academy are discussed, casting light on the constraints that led Bassi to set up the first experimental physics laboratory in her home, complete with the many instruments required for experimentation and private teaching. The aim is to provide a rounded and well-documented account of the scientific endeavors and achievements of a too often overlooked scientist who struggled to overcome the prejudices of her age.
This book looks both backward and forward with regard to the European Union's political strategies towards its neighbouring countries. By bringing together the perspectives of critical geopolitics, policy studies and border studies, it presents a comprehensive review of the European Neighbourhood Policy and how it impacts the ongoing construction of the EU's external frontiers.Is the EU committed to promoting integration in a `wider' European space, or is a "fortress Europe" emerging where the strengthening of internal cohesion is coupled with the militarisation of its external borders? The book aims to problematize this question by showing how the EU's external policies are based on a mixture of openness and closure, inclusion and exclusion, cooperation and securitisation. The European Neighbourhood Policy is a controversial strategy where regionalization and bordering, homogenisations and differentiations, centrifugal and centripetal forces proceed side-by-side, in an explicit attempt to construct a selective, mobile and fragmented border.A specific focus is devoted to the diversity of geo-strategies the EU is pursuing in its neighbouring countries and regions, macro-regional strategies and cross-border cooperation initiatives as new scales of cooperation, and the role of other global players.
The book discusses the concept of the smart city, and is based on a multi-service and multi-sectoral approach to urban planning, including various urban functions and the human capital of cities. The work is divided into three parts. The first is an introductory section which covers definitions, policies and tools used at European level for the development and classification of a smart city. The second presents a selection of examples of Western and Eastern communities, which experienced technologies and strategies that have made them smart. The third describes in detail the main three possible approaches (economical, technological and social) to the smart city concept which are the focus ambits of the holistic concept of smart city.The work provides a good overview of the concept of smart city, and also offers a critical analysis of the various approaches to smart cities, in order to provide tools to develop solutions that address the smart development of cities with an approach as multi-sectoral as possible.Its accessible language and several examples make the book easy to read and appealing to public administrators, students, planners and researchers.
This book explores the new rules and codes that are required in order to foster the implementation of smart city technologies with a view to meeting the environmental and energy challenges posed by dynamic contemporary cities with increasing populations. In particular, it proposes a methodological approach suitable for use when devising a smart urban/building code for local administrations, taking into account the current European regulatory framework (directives and technical norms) and evaluating the economic feasibility of the suggested measures. A case study is made of a large Mediterranean city in Italy that can be regarded as a paradigm of urban evolution, where a traditional individualism poses a cultural obstacle to the emerging need to share resources. Further features include a smart cities atlas, explanation of how to create local rules for sustainable building restoration/construction, and guidance on economic evaluation of the impact of building automation and passive measures for energy efficiency. The book, which has a multidisciplinary perspective, will be of value to all who are interested in the transition to smart cities that can meet sustainable development targets.
This book traces the evolution of Singapore's parks system, from colonial to present times. Further, it contextualizes the design and planning of parks in the general discourse on western and eastern traditions: early twentieth century western conceptions `imported' during colonialism; modernism; postmodernism, and the contemporary ecological debate.
Park system planning products respond to national policies and result in structural urban elements and a range of park types.
Global (western ideology) and local issues have influenced park system planning and the physical design of individual parks over time. However, in Singapore the eastern literature has not addressed the development of parks and urban green spaces in terms of historical perspective.
The publication reveals the interrelations between visual representations and changing political ideologies. Singapore's system of public parks is shown to represent an iconography created by the state. Its set of constructed narratives elucidates on the potential social, cultural and environmental roles of public parks. However, Singapore's park system presents a novel paradigm for expanding Asian cities, characterized by evolving urban imaging strategies.
In framing Singapore's case study within the broader perspective of eastern applications of western planning and design practices, and constructions of nation in post-colonial countries, the manuscript establishes the contribution of the Singaporean model of design and planning of parks to the international debate.
More than a century has passed since the first bioformulations were introduced to the market. But there is still much to be done, explored and developed. Though bioformulations offer green alternatives and are important for sustainable agriculture, they make up only a small fraction of the total additions used to enhance crop yields or protect them from pests. There is a great need to develop bioformulations that can promote confidence among end users; accordingly, it is imperative that bioformulations to replace chemicals be reliable and overcome the shortcomings of the past.Bioformulations: for Sustainable Agriculture discusses all the issues related to the current limitations and future development of bioformulations. It examines in detail those bioformulations that include biofertilizers and biopesticides (also commonly known as bioinoculants), presenting a global picture of their development. Further chapters address diverse microbes that are already being or could be used as bioformulations. The book also discusses the techniques, tools and other additions required to establish bioformulations as trustworthy and global solutions. It assesses the types of bioformulations currently available on the market, while also considering the future roles of bioformulations, including the reclamation of marginal and polluted soils. Further, it discusses the current legislation and much-needed amendments. Overall the book provides a comprehensive outlook on the status quo of bioformulations and the future approaches needed to improve them and achieve sustainable agriculture and food security without sacrificing the quality of soils. This will be extremely important in offering chemical-free foods and a better future for generations to come.
It is generally assumed that microorganisms synthesize, release, detect and respond to small signaling hormone-like molecules. These molecules are used for a process termed "quorum sensing" (QS), a phenomenon that enables bacteria to sense when the minimal number of cells, or "quorum," is achieved for a concerted response to be initiated. Words such as "language" and "behavior" are frequently used to depict QS in the literature. More simply put, language and cross-talk between bacteria, and between bacteria and animal or plant hosts, determines the behavior (e.g., beneficial or pathogenic effects) of bacteria. Currently, the major concern is to understand and decode this language. Overall, bacterial cross-talk was mainly studied on environmental, plant, and human pathogenic bacteria. Few studies considered food-related lactic acid bacteria. The cross-talk between bacteria influences the behavior and, in turn, the environmental adaptation and phenotypes. Therefore, it is understood that bacterial cross-talk has important applicative repercussions. The language spoken between bacteria populating the same food ecosystem may condition the phenotypic traits of starter lactic acid bacteria and, consequently, their performance. This Brief aims to define the basis of cell-to-cell signalling in food fermentation and will highlight: (i) microbiology, nutritional, chemical and functional aspects; (ii) functional properties due to microbial adaptation to the gastrointestinal tract; (iii) principal phenotypes under control of QS circuitries; (iv) quorum quenching. This Brief will be the first reference on this topic and it will highlight the main results for a more productive industrial application. Draft content 1. Signals of food related Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria The chapter will describe the different signaling languages used by Gram-negative bacteria (N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones) and Gram-positive bacteria (based on the synthesis of post-translationally modified peptides) and the universal chemical lexicon, shared by both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (autoinducer-2 through the activity of the LuxS enzyme). 2. Phenotypes related to quorum sensing The chapter will describe the bacterial phenotypes, such as virulence, biofilm maturation, bacteriocin synthesis, and secondary metabolite production under control of QS circuitries. 3. Cell-to-cell signalling in fermented food: sourdough The chapter will describe the language spoken between bacteria populating the same food ecosystem (sourdough) and will provide an overview of the conditioned phenotypic traits of starter lactic acid bacteria and, consequently, their performance. 4. Cell-to-cell signalling in fermented food: yoghurt The chapter will describe the language spoken between bacteria populating the same food ecosystem (yoghurt) and will provide an overview of the conditioned phenotypic traits of starter lactic acid bacteria and, consequently, their performance. 5. Probiotic message at the intra-, inter-species and inter-kingdom level The chapter will describe the mechanisms that regulate the interaction between microorganism and host, and the capacity of the microorganism to adapt to environment. Particular reference will also be made to: (i) pathogen inhibition and restoration of microbial homeostasis through microbe-microbe interactions; (ii) enhancement of epithelial barrier function; and (iii) modulation of immune responses. 6. New Perspectives of quorum sensing This chapter will provide an overview of the future perspective regarding quorum sensing, showing that bacterial cross-talk may have important applicative repercussions. It will highlight the interference on the language of QS, which is defined as quorum quenching (QQ). Increasing translation of the bacterial cross-talk has shown that in some environmental circumstances, quenching of the language may occur.
This open access book presents theoretical and practical research relating to the vast, publicly financed program for the construction of new schools and the reorganization of existing educational buildings in Italy. This transformative process aims to give old buildings a fresh identity, to ensure that facilities are compliant with the new educational and teaching models, and to improve both energy efficiency and structural safety with respect to seismic activity. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which focuses on the social role of the school as a civic building that can serve the needs of the community. Innovations in both design and construction processes are then analyzed, paying special attention to the Building Information Modeling (BIM) strategy as a tool for the integration of different disciplines. The final section is devoted to the built heritage and tools, technologies, and approaches for the upgrading of existing buildings so that they meet the new regulations on building performance. The book will be of interest to all who wish to learn about the latest insights into the challenges posed by, and the opportunities afforded by, a comprehensive school building and renovation program.