This book describes recent advances in the morphodynamics of mixed sand and gravel Mediterranean coasts, and provides updates and new methods for their study and management. It assesses how the differences in the geomorphic setting, in comparison with traditional sandy beaches, result in distinctive physical processes governing the dynamics of these coasts. Further, on the basis of field measurements, theoretical analysis and numerical modeling carried out at two study sites in southern Spain over the last 15 years, the book studies, analyzes and compares these physical processes and mechanisms. It also shows that the narrow and complex bathymetries and inner shelves modify the wave propagation patterns and hence, the longshore sediment transport gradients along the coast. Given the correlation between the changes in these gradients and the shoreline evolution over time, it identifies the complexity of the inner shelf bathymetries as the main driver of coastal changes and describes these processes in detail using, in the plan view, the inter-annual evolution of unaltered and "altered by human" beaches. Lastly, the book details how the generation and subsequent overlapping of berms across the beach profile are responsible for the sediment variability at depth and cross-shore, and concludes that the total run-up (including the water-level) is a more influential variable than wave height in the erosional/depositional response of these beaches.
This book presents the innovative concept of the dual function of wave farms as both renewable energy generators and coastal protection elements against erosion and flooding.
Developing renewable energy is one of the most pressing targets for society in the coming decades due to the finite nature of fossil fuels, their high costs, and the environmental impacts of their exploration and use, including climate change and the subsequent sea-level rise. Wave energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources, thanks to its huge potential and low impact on the environment. As such, this book discusses the development and application of artificial intelligence to optimise wave farm location and layout, assesses the influence of the wave energy converter geometry on coastal protection against erosion and flooding, and analyses how the performance of wave farms as coastal defence elements is affected by climate change and sea level rise. The concepts, methods and conclusions presented are helpful to students, researchers, academics, engineers, designers, stakeholders and managers around the globe interested in wave energy, coastal engineering, and coastal management.