In this book the authors present new results on interpolation for nonmonotonic logics, abstract (function) independence, the Talmudic Kal Vachomer rule, and an equational solution of contrary-to-duty obligations. The chapter on formal construction is the conceptual core of the book, where the authors combine the ideas of several types of nonmonotonic logics and their analysis of 'natural' concepts into a formal logic, a special preferential construction that combines formal clarity with the intuitive advantages of Reiter defaults, defeasible inheritance, theory revision, and epistemic considerations.
It is suitable for researchers in the area of computer science and mathematical logic.
Mathematical Problems from Applied Logic I presents chapters from selected, world renowned, logicians. Important topics of logic are discussed from the point of view of their further development in light of requirements arising from their successful application in areas such as Computer Science and AI language. An overview of the current state as well as open problems and perspectives are clarified in such fields as non-standard inferences in description logics, logic of provability, logical dynamics, and computability theory. The book contains interesting contributions concerning the role of logic today, including some unexpected aspects of contemporary logic and the application of logic.
This second edition of the Handbook of Philosophical Logic reflects great changes in the landscape of philosophical logic since the first edition. It gives readers an idea of that landscape and its relation to computer science and formal language and artificial intelligence. It shows how the increased demand for philosophical logic from computer science and artificial intelligence and computational linguistics accelerated the development of the subject directly and indirectly. This development in turn, directly pushed research forward, stimulated by the needs of applications. New logic areas became established and old areas were enriched and expanded. At the same time, it socially provided employment for generations of logicians residing in computer science, linguistics and electrical engineering departments which of course helped keep the logic community to thrive. The many contributors to this Handbook are active in these application areas and are among the most famous leading figures of applied philosophical logic of our times. ?
This text centers around three main subjects. The first is the concept of modularity and independence in classical logic and nonmonotonic and other nonclassical logic, and the consequences on syntactic and semantical interpolation and language change. In particular, we will show the connection between interpolation for nonmonotonic logic and manipulation of an abstract notion of size. Modularity is essentially the ability to put partial results achieved independently together for a global result. The second aspect of the book is the authors' uniform picture of conditionals, including many-valued logics and structures on the language elements themselves and on the truth value set. The third topic explained by the authors is neighbourhood semantics, their connection to independence, and their common points and differences for various logics, e.g., for defaults and deontic logic, for the limit version of preferential logics, and for general approximation. The book will be of value to researchers and graduate students in logic and theoretical computer science.