Intragastric balloons are steadily gaining popularity among the medical treatments available for obesity. Their efficacy and safety are reinforced by growing body of evidence obtained around the globe. Intragastric balloons are now considered one of the safest and most effective medical procedures for weight reduction. Additionally, the reduced potential for side effects and low invasiveness (compared to bariatric surgeries) are important considerations.
This book is edited by renowned surgeons and endoscopists from Brazil, a country known for its reputation on the field of bariatric endoscopy and surgery. Such reputation is especially valid where the use of intragastric balloons is concerned. These devices, approved by the FDA only in 2015, have been used in Brazil since the 1990s, attesting to Brazilian expertise in the field. This book describes the various types of intragastric balloons used for the treatment of obesity, an alternative to bariatric surgery and other more invasive methods. It addresses their indications, procedures and outcomes, providing readers an overview of the therapeutic options available worldwide. It is divided into seven main sections: I - Introductory Issues; II - Devices; III - Technical Procedures and Related Issues; IV - Acute Complications and Treatment; V - Chronic Complications and Treatment; VI - Special Populations; and VII - Miscellaneous. This structure helps to promote a better knowledge construction and a reasonable flow of ideas throughout the book, guiding the reader from introductory topics to surgical procedures and complications.
The book ultimately intends to offer an essential reference guide for all physicians and surgeons interested in the treatment of obese patients. It is intended for both experienced professionals looking for in-depth information and for trainees and residents seeking to broaden their perspectives concerning the treatment of obesity.
Infections caused by fungi have recently attracted the attention of both clinicians and basic researchers given the heavy burden they represent for any health system. The mortality and morbidity rates associated to mycosis are progressively rising simply because some of these diseases are still neglected by health-care workers and due to the changing sensitivity to antifungal drugs displayed by these organisms. In this book, both researchers and clinicians working in the medical mycology field explore the most recent literature about specific mycosis; placing in one concise chapter thoroughly revisions of the current knowledge on virulence factors, recognition by immune cells, immunoevasion, epidemiology, new diagnosis trends and therapeutics. This book is recommended to researchers, physicians and students interested in medical mycology.
The aim of this book is to analyse the current development scenario in the Amazon, using Terra Preta de Índio as a case study. To do so it is necessary to go back in time, both in the national and international sphere, through the second half of the last century to analyse its trajectory. It will be equally important analyse the current issues regarding the Amazon - sustainable development and climate change - and how they still reproduce some of the problems that marked the history of the forest, such as the absence of Amazonian dark earths as a relevant theme to the Amazon.?In a world in which the environment gains each time more space in the national and international political agenda, the Amazon stands out. Known around the world for its richness, the South-American forest is the target of different visions, often contradictory ones, and it plays with everyone's imagination. This is where the terra preta de índio - Amazonian Dark Earths - are found, a fertile soil horizon with high concentrations of carbon with anthropic origins, which has generated great interest from the scientific community. Studies on these soils and their so singular characteristics have triggered crucial discussions on the past, present and the future of the entire Amazon region. Despite its singular characteristics, the importance of Amazonian Dark Earths - and a history of a more productive and populated Amazon - was hidden since its discovery around 1880 until 1980, when it is possible to identify the beginning of an increase in the number of research on these soil horizons. These hundred years between the first records and the beginning of the increase in the interest around these soils witnessed structural changes both in the national arena, with the military dictatorship and a change in the place of the Amazon within internal affairs, and in the international arena with changes that reshaped the role of the environment in the political and scientific agendas and the role of Brazil in the global context.
The methodology described in this book is the result of many years of research experience in the field of synthesizable VHDL design targeting FPGA based platforms. VHDL was first conceived as a documentation language for ASIC designs. Afterwards, the language was used for the behavioral simulation of ASICs, and also as a design input for synthesis tools. VHDL is a rich language, but just a small subset of it can be used to write synthesizable code, from which a physical circuit can be obtained. Usually VHDL books describe both, synthesis and simulation aspects of the language, but in this book the reader is conducted just through the features acceptable by synthesis tools. The book introduces the subjects in a gradual and concise way, providing just enough information for the reader to develop their synthesizable digital systems in VHDL. The examples in the book were planned targeting an FPGA platform widely used around the world.
This book is based on the author's work at the Double Chooz Experiment, from 2010 to 2013, the goal of which was to search for electronic anti-neutrino disappearance close to nuclear power plant facilities as a result of neutrino oscillation. Starting with a brief review of neutrino oscillation and the most important past experimental findings in this field, the author subsequently provides a full and detailed description of a neutrino detector, from simulation aspects to detection principles, as well as the data analysis procedure used to extract the oscillation parameters. The main results in this book are 1) an improvement on the mixing angle, ?13, uncertainty by combining two data-sets from neutrino event selection: neutron capture on gadolinium and on hydrogen; and 2) the first measurement of the effective squared mass difference by combining the current reactor neutrino experimental data from Daya Bay, Double Chooz and RENO and taking advantage of their different reactor-to-detector distances. The author explains how these methods of combining data can be used to estimate these two values. Each method results in the best possible sensitivity for the oscillation parameters with regard to reactor neutrinos. They can be used as a standard method on the latest data releases from the current experiments.
This book presents the characteristics and limitations of geological units, Cenozoic and geochronological concepts. It studies landscape aspects developed from research in areas with proved Cenozoic tectonic activity, such as the Potiguar basin, located between the states of Ceara and Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. The analytical focus involves the relationship between tectonics and landscapes in different scales, in hills or karsts, or regional, in basins, and massifs.
This unique book provides an introduction to the fascinating field of tropical nephrology, covering nephrology, infectious diseases and tropical medicine. These topics are connected since numerous infectious and parasitic diseases affect the kidneys and are endemic in the tropical areas of the globe. Considered neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization, they are largely linked to poverty and lack policies to prevent, treat and decrease their prevalence and incidence.
The tropics currently encompass nearly 150 countries and account for 40% of the world's population, and it is predicted that by 2050 this figure will rise to 55%. Most of the countries in the tropical regions have been classified by the World Bank as low-middle income countries and have limited access to services, including health care. As such, this highly topical book is of interest to a large number of healthcare professionals and researchers who are in contact with tropical diseases, especially those investigating their complications, such as kidney injury.
Divided into 23 chapters, it describes the most prevalent tropical diseases and conditions that affect the kidneys. It also presents the most recent epidemiological data, clinical manifestations, details of kidney involvement, including the pathophysiology of kidney injury, and the current treatment for each disease.